سبد خرید

Vascular Smooth Muscle Structure and Function in Health and Disease

This book covers core concepts in the structure and function of vascular smooth muscle cells in health and disease. Supplemental reading may be drawn from the extensive number of references listed at the end of each chapter. Vascular smooth muscle cell is the major cell type in blood vessels. Dysfunction of vascular smooth muscle cells is an important cause of vascular diseases — for example, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and circulatory shock. Vascular smooth muscle cells are phenotypically plastic, capable of switching between two major phenotypes — contractile/differentiated phenotype and invasive/ proliferative phenotype — in response to environmental clues. This book is organized in three sections. Section I (chapters 2 to 4) addresses the structure and function of the contractile/differentiated phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cell. Section II (chapters 5 and 6) addresses the developmental basis of vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype and structure and function of podosomes (invasive organelles) in the invasive/proliferative phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cell. Section III (chapters 7 to 9) addresses the role of vascular smooth muscle cell dysfunction in three vascular diseases — atherosclerosis, hypertension, and circulatory shock.

Vascular Smooth Muscle Structure and Function in Health and Disease

This book covers core concepts in the structure and function of vascular smooth muscle cells in health and disease. Supplemental reading may be drawn from the extensive number of references listed at the end of each chapter. Vascular smooth muscle cell is the major cell type in blood vessels. Dysfunction of vascular smooth muscle cells is an important cause of vascular diseases — for example, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and circulatory shock. Vascular smooth muscle cells are phenotypically plastic, capable of switching between two major phenotypes — contractile/differentiated phenotype and invasive/ proliferative phenotype — in response to environmental clues. This book is organized in three sections. Section I (chapters 2 to 4) addresses the structure and function of the contractile/differentiated phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cell. Section II (chapters 5 and 6) addresses the developmental basis of vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype and structure and function of podosomes (invasive organelles) in the invasive/proliferative phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cell. Section III (chapters 7 to 9) addresses the role of vascular smooth muscle cell dysfunction in three vascular diseases — atherosclerosis, hypertension, and circulatory shock.

Nutrition and Health in a Developing World

Nutrition is a basic need and a key input as well as a desired outcome of economic development. The most important reason for investing in nutrition is to allow individuals to survive and thrive and reach their full potential. Quantifying the economic benefits of nutrition interventions can be a powerful way to advocate for increased resources for nutrition. Economic analysis can also help to decide how best to allocate investments to improve nutrition among competing programs, and how to use public funding most effectively. Undernutrition is associated with 3.1 million child deaths each year (45% of all child deaths in 2011 ). This includes deaths associated with stunting, wasting, suboptimal breastfeeding, fetal growth restriction, and deficiencies of micronutrients including vitamin A and zinc. Estimates of economic losses associated with individual micronutrients can be as large as 1–2% of GDP (Gross Domestic Product, a measure of national income). More recently, studies have attempted to estimate the losses associated with stunting, and these losses can be as large as 8–10% of GDP (see The Costs of Undernutrition section). Stunting is to a large extent a consequence of diets which are chronically inadequate in quantity and quality, and is a good indicator of overall nutritional status. Recent work suggests that breastfeeding has benefits on IQ and income later in life, which is separate from measured nutritional status.

Handbook of Life Course Health Development

Over the past several decades, countless studies have linked early life events and experiences with adult health conditions, delineating the developmental origins of common chronic health conditions and specifying the processes by which both adversity and opportunity are integrated into developing biobehavioral systems (Baltes et al .2006; Bronfenbrenner 2005; Elder et al. 2015). As a result, there is a greater understanding of how health and disease develop, which is leading to new kinds of individual- and population-level strategies that have the potential to prevent disease and optimize health by minimizing the impact of adversity, increasing protective factors, and targeting health-promoting interventions to coincide with sensitive periods of health development. Insights and evidence from life course chronic disease epidemiology have converged with research from the felds of developmental biology, neuroscience, and developmental science, with studies of typical and atypical development and with new fndings from research examining the developmental origins of chronic disease. This wide-ranging research, all focused on understanding how health and disease develop, has involved researchers from a wide variety of disciplines. Life-span developmental psychologists, life course-focused sociologists, human capitalfocused economists, and political scientists studying the structure of social institutions are not only studying the same developmental processes; they are also working alongside epidemiologists, physicians, and basic scientists to better understand how health develops over the life course and how these health development processes promote human flourishing.

Pulmonary Vasculature Redox Signaling in Health and Disease

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease of the lung vasculature, which is characterized by sustained pulmonary arterial pressure, resulting in increased pulmonary vascular resistance, with eventual right heart failure . Vascular remodeling caused by the medial hyperplasia of pulmonary artery (PA) smooth muscle cells is a hallmark feature of PAH , which causes occlusion of the vessels . In most forms of PAH, muscularization of small distal PA occurs , and is further characterized by excessive vascular cell proliferation, inward remodeling, rarefaction, and a loss of compliance of the pulmonary blood vessels . Increased resistance to blood flow and more rigid blood vessels (loss of vascular compliance) leads to failure of the right ventricle and eventual death. PAH is more frequent in women than men, and left untreated has a survival time of 5–7 years post diagnosis . From a therapeutic standpoint, there are a number of vasodilator drugs that are indicated for the treatment of PAH, but none of the current therapeutics offers long-term success for survival due to limited effectiveness and unwanted side effects , and more importantly, do not address the underlying causes of the disease.

Introduction to Health Care Quality

Health care is changing—its delivery, its structures, even its underlying phi- losophy. Wellness, rather than sickness, is now the focus of government concern. The patient experience of health and well-being, rather than the physician’s interpretation, is now central, and patient expectations are measured, communicated, and meaningful for fnancial success. Smaller health care organizations are banding together to become larger health care systems because fnancial effciencies dictate such collaborations. Data are abundantly available to track various aspects of care. All these changes encourage new ways of thinking about health care and the organizations that deliver that care; those professionals who hope to understand and thrive in this new environment require quality tools, techniques, information, and education.

Histamine and Histamine Receptors in Health and Disease

The endogenous metabolite histamine (HA) is synthesized in various mammalian cells but can also be ingested from exogenous sources. It is involved in a plethora of physiological and pathophysiological processes. So far, four different HA receptors (H1R–H4R) have been described and numerous HAR antagonists have been developed. Contemporary investigations regarding the various roles of HA and its main metabolites have been hampered by the lack of highly specific and sensitive analytic methods for all of these analytes. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is the method of choice for identification and sensitive quantification of many low-molecular weight endogenous metabolites. In this chapter, different methodological aspects of HA quantification as well as recommendations for LC-MS/MS methods suitable for analysis of HA and its main metabolites are summarized.

Human Retrotransposons in Health and Disease

Retrotransposons are a class of mobile genetic elements that make up around 40% of the sequenced mammalian genome (Chinwalla et al. 2002; Lander et al. 2001). Retrotransposons contribute to genomic instability in mammalian genomes by providing interspersed repeats of homologous sequences that can act as substrates for recombination causing deletions, duplications and structural rearrangements in the genome (Romanish et al. 2010). Retrotransposons are thought to be the only active class of mobile genetic element in most mammalian genomes, and can also cause genome instability through jumping to new locations in the genome. These de novo retrotransposon insertions have been reported as the causal mutation in various human genetic diseases (Crichton et al. 2014; Hancks and Kazazian 2012). The copy-and-paste mechanism that retrotransposons use to jump to new locations in the genome involves reverse-transcription of retrotransposon RNA, and integration of the resulting cDNA into new locations in the genome. There are typically a few hundred different types of retrotransposon annotated in each mammalian genome, with each type of retrotransposon being present in up to 10,000 copies. However, the types of retrotransposon, their copy numbers and their genomic locations vary signifcantly between species.

HEALTH PROMOTION PROGRAMS

The World Health Organization (WHO, 1947) defined health as “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” While most of us can identify when we are sick or have some infirmity, identifying the characteristics of complete physical, mental, and social well- being is often a bit more difficult. What does complete physical, mental, and social well-being look like? How will we know when or if we arrive at that state? If it is achieved, does it mean that we will not succumb to any disease, from the common cold to cancer? In 1986, the first International Conference of Health Promotion, held in Ottawa, Canada, issued the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, which defined health in a broader perspective: “health has been considered less as an abstract state and more as a means to an end which is expressed in functional terms as a resource which permits people to lead an individually, socially, and economically productive life” (WHO, 1986). Accordingly, health in this view is a resource for everyday life, not the object of living. It is a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources as well as physical capabilities.

Cognitive Informatics in Health and Biomedicine

The felds of behavioral medicine and biomedical informatics, each with its own theories and methods, have been developing in parallel with little connection until recently. The convergence of research in these disciplines, cognitive informatics, provides enormous opportunities and challenges in addressing the prevention of public health problems and managing disease, as well as in maintaining healthy lifestyles. The limitations of such models in addressing digital health interventions are discussed within the context of cognitive models of behavior and methods of encouraging behavioral change.

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