• 6LowPSec An End-to-taliem-ir

    ۶LowPSec: An End-to-End Security Protocol for 6LoWPAN

    تومان

    6LoWPAN has radically changed the IoT (Internet of Things) landscape by seeking to extend the use of IPv6 to smart and tiny objects. Enabling efficient IPv6 communication over IEEE 802.15.4 LoWPAN  radio links requires high end-to-end security rules. The IEEE 802.15.4 MAC layer implements several security features offering hardware hop-by-hop protection for exchanged frames. In order to provide end-to-end security, researchers focus on lightweighting variants of existing security solutions such as  IPSecthat operates on the network layer. In this paper, we introduce a new security protocol referred to as ”6LowPSec”, providing a propitious end-to-end security solution but functioning at the adaptation layer. 6LowPSec employs existing hardware security features specified by the MAC security sublayer. A detailed campaign is presented that evaluates the performances of 6LowPSec compared with the  ightweight IPSec. Results prove the feasibility of an end-to-end hardware security solution for IoT, that operates at the adaptation layer, without incurring much overhead.

  • A Complete Internet of Things-taliem-ir

    A Complete Internet of Things (IoT) Platform for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)

    تومان

     Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is becoming a crucial research topic to improve the human safety and to reduce maintenance costs. However, most of the existing SHM systems face challenges performing at real-time due to environmental effects and different operational hazards. Furthermore, the remote and constant monitoring amenities are not established yet, properly. To overcome this, Internet of Things (IoT) can be used, which would provide flexibility to monitor structures (building, bridge) from anywhere. In this paper, a complete IoT SHM platform is proposed. The platform consists of a Raspberry Pi, an analog to digital converter (ADC) MCP3008, and a Wi-Fi module for wireless communication. Piezoelectric (PZT) sensors were used to collect the data from the structure. The MCP3008 is used as an interface between the PZT sensors and the Raspberry Pi. The raspberry pi performs the necessary calculations to determine the SHM status using a proposed mathematical model to determine the damage’s location and size if any. The All the data is pushed to the Internet filter using ThingWorx platform. The proposed platform is evaluated and tested successfully.

     

  • A Novel Concatenated Coded Modulation Based-taliem-ir

    A Novel Concatenated Coded Modulation Based on GFDM for Access Optical Networks

    تومان

    In this paper, we proposed a novel concatenated coded modulation composed of adaptive turbo code with trellis-coded modulation (ATTCM) that is based on generalized frequency division multiplex (GFDM) system. The proposed scheme has low complexity and provides high spectrum efficiency and significant coding gain. An experiment with 4 Gbit/s novel concatenated coded modulation GFDM system is successfully demonstrated with the proposed method. It is shown that the novel concatenated coding modulation signal (ATTCM 32QAM)  provides 2.3 dB coding gain over that of TCM32QAM signal at bit error rate of 1e–3.This paper indicates a prospect solution for the future fifth generation optical access system.

     

  • A novel ensemble method-taliem-ir

    A novel ensemble method for k-nearest neighbor

    تومان

    In this paper, to address the issue that ensembling k-nearest neighbor (kNN) classifiers with resampling approaches cannot generate component classifiers with a large diversity, we consider ensembling kNN through a multimodal perturbation-based method. Since kNN is sensitive to the input attributes, we propose a weighted heterogeneous distance Metric (WHDM). By using a WHDM and evidence theory, a progressive kNN classifier is developed. Based on a progressive kNN, the random subspace method, attribute reduction, and Bagging, a novel algorithm termed RRSB (reduced random subspace-based Bagging) is proposed for construct ensemble classifier, which can increase the diversity of component classifiers without damaging the accuracy of the component classifiers. In detail, RRSB adopts the  perturbation on the learningparameter with a weighted heterogeneous distance metric, the perturbation on the input space with random subspace and attribute reduction, the perturbation on the training data with Bagging, and the perturbation on the output target of k neighbors with evidence theory. In the  experimental stage,the value of k, the different perturbations on RRSB and the ensemble size are  analyzed. In addition,RRSB is compared with other multimodal perturbation-based ensemble algorithms on multiple UCI data sets and a KDD data set. The results from the experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of RRSB for kNN ensembling.

  • A novel QoS-enabled load-taliem-ir

    A novel QoS-enabled load scheduling algorithm based on reinforcement learning in software-defned energy internet

    تومان

    Recently, smart grid and Energy Internet (EI) are proposed to solve energy crisis and global warming, where improved communication mechanisms are important. Softwaredefined networking (SDN) has been used in smart grid for realtime monitoring and communicating, which requires steady web-environment with no packet loss and less time delay. With the explosion of network scales, the idea of  multiple controllers has been proposed, where the problem of load scheduling needs to be solved. However, some traditional load scheduling algorithms have inferior robustness under the complicated environments in smart grid, and inferior time efficiency without pre-strategy, which are hard to meet the requirement of smart grid. Therefore, we present a novel controller mind (CM) framework to implement automatic management among multiple controllers. Specially, in order to solve the problem of complexity and pre-strategy in the system, we propose a novel Quality of Service (QoS) enabled load scheduling algorithm based on reinforcement learning in this paper. Simulation results show the effectiveness of our proposed scheme in the aspects of load variation and time efficiency.

  • A robust and anonymous patient monitoring-taliem-ir

    A robust and anonymous patient monitoring system using wireless medical sensor networks

    تومان

    In wireless medical sensor network (WMSN), bio-sensors are implanted within the patient body to sense the  sensitive information of a patient which later on can be transmitted to the remote medical centres for further processing. The patient’s data can be accessed using WMSN by medical professionals from anywhere across the globe with the help of Internet. As the patient sensitive information is transmitted over an insecure WMSN, so  providing the secure access and privacy of the patient’s data are various challenging issues in WMSN nvironments. To provide secure data access, in the literature very less number of user authentication protocols are available. But, most of these existing protocols may not be applicable to WMSNs for providing user’s anonymity. In this article, we propose an architecture for patient monitoring health-care system in WMSN and then design an anonymitypreserving mutual authentication protocol for mobile users. We used the AVISPA tool to simulate the  proposed protocol. Theresults obtained indicate that the proposed authentication protocol resists the known  attacks. In addition, the BAN logic model confirms mutual authentication feature of the proposed protocol. Moreover, an informal cryptanalysis is also given, which ensures that the proposed protocol withstands all known attacks. We perform a comparative discussion of the proposed protocol against the existing protocols and the comparative results demonstrate that the proposed protocol is efficient and robust. Specifically, the proposed protocol is not only effective for complexity and robustness against common security threats, but it also offers  efficient login, robust mutual authentication, and user-friendly password change phases.

     

  • A Survey of the Sensing, Communication-taliem-ir

    A Survey of the Sensing, Communication, and Security Planes in Smart City System Design

    تومان

    The Internet of Things (IoT) era is evolving into sensor initiated, actuation-driven, and machine intelligence-based decision making platform for smart cities. A smart city system aims at seamless and secure interconnection of sensors, actuators, and data processing resources to ensure digital, efficient, and reliable services. In this article, we present a brief planar overview of a smart city system architecture by introducing the application, sensing, communication, data, and security/privacy planes. Tailoring existing communication protocols and infrastructures to bridge massively deployed sensors and data processing/storage resources introduces unique communication challenges for smart cities. Furthermore, co-existence, integration, and control of dedicated and non-dedicated sensors is a grand challenge while IoT sensors continuously push sensory data through the communication medium towards data processing and analysis planes. While pervasiveness and ubiquity of smart city services are ensured by the interaction of communication and sensing technologies, their robustness and resilience calls for  customized security and privacy solutions. With thesein mind, we focus on sensing/actuation, communication, and security planes of a smart city system and present a comprehensive survey of the challenges and state-of-the-art .solutions in each plane. Furthermore, we provide insights for open issues and opportunities in these planes

     

  • All click, no action -taliem-ir

    All click, no action? Online action, efficacy perceptions, and prior experience combine to affect future collective action

    تومان

    Social media is increasingly used for social protest, but does internet-enabled action lead to ‘slacktivism’ or promote increased activism? We show that the answer to this question depends on prior level of activism, and on beliefs about the effectiveness of individual contribution to the collective campaign. Internet-enabled action was varied quasiexperimentally, with participants (n = 143) choosing whether or not to share a campaign on social media. Participants were then informed that sharing on social media had a big (high action efficacy) or small (low action efficacy) impact on achieving the campaign’s goal. Prior levels of activism were measured before the experiment, and general levels of collective action were measured one week after the experiment. Taking internet-enabled action for one campaign increased future activism for other campaigns – but only in individuals who were already active and  who perceived their actions to be an effective contribution to thecampaign.

  • An exploration of smart city approaches-taliem-ir

    An exploration of smart city approaches by international ICT firms

    تومان

    As part of the growing interest in cities to address persistent sustainability issues in society, ‘smart cities’ have increasingly become a ubiquitous phenomenon globally. For multinational enterprises (MNEs), this has providedopportunities to develop and market technological innovations to facilitate the creation of smart cities, giventhat the deployment of information and communication technology (ICT) is commonly considered to be a centraltenet of smart cities. This paper explores the strategic approaches of three MNEs from the ICT industry (IBM,Cisco, and Accenture) as suppliers of ‘smart city technologies’, rooted in an international business perspective.Based on qualitative data collected from semi-structured interviews and documentation on firm activities relatedto smart cities, our study offers two contributions. First, the empirical analysis provides insight into how MNEshave developed resources and capabilities in the smart city realm from a multitude of smart city engagementsglobally, and shows how firm-specific strategies and programmes for smart cities (IBM Smarter Cities, CiscoSmart + Connected Communities, and Accenture Intelligent Cities) have facilitated this process. Second, itprovides an actor-centric perspective on the (potential) role of business in the emergence and spread of technological innovations for urban development, helping to address the need for further insights into (smart) cities and stakeholder involvement in sustainability transitions.

  • Analysis of student behavior-taliem-ir

    Analysis of student behavior in learning management systems through a big data framework

    تومان

     In recent years, learning management systems (LMSs) have played a fundamental role in higher education teaching models. A new line of research has been opened relating to the analysis of student behavior within an LMS, in the search for patterns that improve the learning process. Current e-learning platforms allow for recording student activity, thereby enabling the exploration of events generated in the use of LMS tools. This paper presents a case study conducted at the Catholic University of Murcia, where student behavior in the past four academic years was analyzed according to learning modality  (that is, oncampus, online, and blended), considering the number of accesses to the LMS,tools employed by students and their associated events. Given the difficulty of managing the large volume of  data generated by users in the LMS (up to 70 GB in this study), statistical and association rule techniques were performed using a Big Data framework, thus speeding up the statistical analysis of the data. The obtained results are demonstrated using visual analytic techniques, and evaluated in order to detect trends and deficiencies in the use of the LMS by students.

  • Automatic washing system-taliem-ir

    Automatic washing system of LED street lighting via Internet of Things

    تومان

    The illumination of the streets and public area in metropolitan cities is a vital service, which is not only related to the type of the light but also the dirtiness of the surface of the light. In this paper, both subjects are considered to increase the productivity of the light. To achieve this goal, a novel Automatic washing system (AWS) of LED street/public light surface was designed, manufactured and installed practically. The proposed mechanism consists of two main parts comprising mechanical and electrical systems. AWS operates based on internet interconnection technique known as Internet of Things (IoT) with a high productivity. The system has the potential to be designed and employed by four types of control system; (i) using a timer switch, (ii) using a GSM 900, (iii) using a push button manually by an operator, and (iv) using a remote-control module such as GSM, SIM 808 or GPRS/GPS/SMS through the Ethernet network. A practical system has been manufactured and installed in Kermanshah city in Iran, due to its low cost, low maintenance, upgradability, and feasibility of installing different recognition sensors such as rain and dust sensors.

  • Automatic washing system of LED street lighting via Internet of Things

    تومان

    The illumination of the streets and public area in metropolitan cities is a vital service, which is not only related to the type of the light but also the dirtiness of the surface of the light. In this paper, both subjects are considered to increase the productivity of the light. To achieve this goal, a novel Automatic washing system (AWS) of LED street/public light surface was designed, manufactured and installed practically. The proposed mechanism consists of two main parts comprising mechanical and electrical systems. AWS operates based on internet interconnection technique known as Internet of Things (IoT) with a high productivity. The system has the potential to be designed and employed by four types of control system; (i) using a timer switch, (ii) using a GSM 900, (iii) using a push button manually by an operator, and (iv) using a remote-control module such as GSM, SIM 808 or GPRS/GPS/SMS through the Ethernet network. A practical system has been manufactured and installed in Kermanshah city in Iran, due to its low cost, low maintenance, upgradability, and feasibility of installing different recognition sensors such as rain and dust sensors.

     

  • Autonomic computation offloading-taliem-ir

    Autonomic computation offloading in mobile edge for IoT applications

    تومان

     Computation offloading is a protuberant elucidation for the resource-constrained mobile devices to accomplish the process demands high computation capability. The mobile cloud is the well-known existing offloading platform, which usually far-end network solution, to leverage computation of the resource-constrained mobile devices. Because of the far- end network solution, the user devices experience higher latency or network delay, which negatively affects the real-time mobile Internet of things (IoT) applications. Therefore, this paper proposed near-end network solution of computation offloading in mobile edge/fog. The mobility, heterogeneity and geographical distribution mobile devices
    through several challenges in computation offloading in mobile edge/fog. However, for handling the computation resource demand from the massive mobile devices, a deep Q-learning based autonomic management framework is proposed. The distributed edge/fog network controller (FNC) scavenging the available edge/fog resources i.e. processing, memory, network to enable edge/fog computation service. The randomness in the availability of resources and numerous options for allocating those resources for offloading computation fits the problem appropriate for modeling through Markov decision process (MDP) and solution through reinforcement learning. The proposed model is simulated through MATLAB considering oscillated resource demands and mobility of end user devices. The proposed autonomic deep Q-learning based method significantly improves the performance of the computation offloading through minimizing the latency of service computing. The total power consumption due to different offloading decisions is also studied for comparative study purpose which shows the proposed approach as energy efficient with respect to the state-of-the-art computation offloading solutions.

  • Bit-Interleaved Polar Coded Modulation-taliem-ir

    Bit-Interleaved Polar Coded Modulation with Iterative Decoding

    تومان

    Polar Codes are a recently proposed class of linear block error correction codes. They are provably capacity achieving codes over Binary Discrete Memoryless Channels (B-DMC) and have hence garnered a lot of interest from the scientific community. It is also a proposed channel coding method for 5G technology. Bit-Interleaved Coded Modulation with Iterative coding (BICM-ID) is a well known design to improve the error correcting performance of underlying channel codes over continuous channels especially  Additive White Gaussian Noise(AWGN) channels. The novel idea in this paper, is to combine these powerful error correcting techniques i.e. integrate Polar Codes in a BICM-ID design to produce a high performance Bit-Interleaved Polar Coded Modulation with Iterative Decoding (BIPCM-ID) system. The error correcting performance of such a BIPCM-ID system has been analyzed through simulations over AWGN channel and multiple modulation schemes. Additionally error floor removal has been implemented and system performance has been discussed.

     

  • Boundaries as an Enhancement-taliem-ir

    Boundaries as an Enhancement Technique for Physical Layer Security

    تومان

    In this paper, we study the receiver performance with physical layer security in a Poisson field of interferers. We compare the performance in two deployment scenarios: (i) the receiver is located at the corner of a quadrant, (ii) the receiver is located in the infinite plane. When the channel state information (CSI) of the eavesdropper is not available at the transmitter, we calculate the probability of secure connectivity using the Wyner coding scheme, and we show that hiding the receiver at the corner is beneficial at high rates of the transmitted codewords and detrimental at low transmission rates. When the CSI is available, we show that the average secrecy capacity is higher when the receiver is located at the corner, even if the intensity of interferers in this case is four times higher than the  intensity of interferersin the bulk. Therefore boundaries can also be used as a secrecy enhancement technique for high data rate applications.