سبد خرید

Strategic Issues of Information Technology

We have already shown how IT can transform organizations and industries when used in strategic applications. Examples in this chapter, plus our earlier discussions of the securities and airline industries, demonstrate the power of modem information technology to change businesses. As technology becomes integrated with strategy, the nature of business changes. Baxter Laboratories spun off Allegiance, a firm dedicated to providing hospital supplies and to helping hospitals manage their costs through information technology. A few years later, Cardinal Health Care bought Allegiance ! Rosenbluth Travel, a firm discussed in this chapter, changed its focus from providing bookings and tickets to helping a company manage its travel costs through the creative use of technology. Technology and strategy are responsible for major changes in the structure and operations of the organization . A recent poll of more than 200 executives showed that they feel information technology is key to a competitive advantage. However, 52 percent of these managers also feel that they are not getting their money’s worth from the technology. Andersen Consulting conducted the study, which involved chief executives, chief operating officers, and chief financial officers representing companies with annual sales ranging from $250 million to $20 billion. This chapter discusses how technology can be used to gain a strategic, competitive advantage. We believe that many of the problems expressed by the executives in the survey just mentioned come from their failure to actively manage IT in the firm. After we disc uss IT and strategy, we present some ideas on how you should manage technology so that it can contribute to corporate strategy.

Dividend Policy from the Signaling Perspective and its Effects on Information Asymmetry among Management and Investors

This study attempts to examine the relevance of dividend policy from the signaling perspective and its effects on information asymmetry among management and investors and Compare the relative information content of them. Based on sampling, 88 firms from Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) were selected and examined during 2003 to 2010. The findings show that the dividend policy (Divisible profit proportion) has positive and significant relation with market information asymmetry namely when the dividend policy increases the information asymmetry increases, too. On the other side, the test findings indicate the investors are sensitive to the EPS changes and when the EPS changes are positive their dividend increases, but when the divivend of the company decreases the information boggles their mind and information asymmetry increases. By virtue of the findings it may conclude when EPS and DPS changes are not in the same direction the internal and external information asymmetry of the company increases by changing profit division policy.

Real-time railway traffic management optimization and imperfect information: preliminary studies

Railway traffic is often perturbed by unexpected events and appropriate train routing and scheduling shall be applied to minimize delay propagation. A number algorithms for this routing and scheduling problem have been proposed in the literature and they have been tested in different traffic situations. Nonetheless, their performance are almost always studied considering perfect knowledge of future traffic conditions, which is almost impossible to achieve in reality. In this paper, we propose an experimental analysis assessing the usefulness of these algorithms in case of imperfect information. We consider RECIFE-MILP as a traffic management algorithm and advanced or delayed train entrance times in the control area as the source of imperfect information. The results show that the application of traffic management optimization allows outperforming the firstcome-first-served management strategy even if the actual traffic conditions are not perfectly known by the optimization algorithm.

Technology-based management of environmental organizations using an Environmental Management Information System (EMIS): Design and development

The adoption of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in environmental management has become a significant demand nowadays with the rapid growth of environmental information. This paper presents a prototype Environmental Management Information System (EMIS) that was developed to provide a systematic way of managing environmental data and human resources of an environmental organization. The system was designed using programming languages, a Database Management System (DBMS) and other technologies and programming tools and combines information from the relational database in order to achieve the principal goals of the environmental organization. The developed application can be used to store and elaborate information regarding: human resources data, environmental projects, observations, reports, data about the protected species, environmental measurements of pollutant factors or other kinds of analytical measurements and also the financial data of the organization. Furthermore, the system supports the visualization of spatial data structures by using geographic information systems (GIS) and web mapping technologies. This paper describes this prototype software application, its structure, its functions and how this system can be utilized to facilitate technology-based environmental management and decision-making process

INTEGRATED INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND INTERORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE THE ROLE OF MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING SYSTEMS DESIGN

The interorganizational environment faced by business organizations presents unique challenges for management accounting and control. Past management accounting research has shown interest in such collaborations because despite their benefits, such relationships pose significant issues of coordination and control. As information and communication systems supplement management control systems in their support of decision facilitation and decision influencing, examining the design of management accounting systems (MASs) in the management of interorganizational relationships and assessing how it affects the attainment of interorganizational exchange partner performance objectives is important. In this chapter, I extend past accounting research to examine the complementary nature of decision-facilitation and decisioninfluencing objectives of MAS design as enabled by the use of integrated information systems in interorganizational settings. The economic theory of complementarity is employed to examine synergistic effects of complementary MAS objectives. A field survey is used to examine hypothesized relationships, and data were obtained from 116 organizations involved in strategic alliance activity. This chapter reports findings that support the view that the degree of complementarity in decisionfacilitation and decision-influencing objectives assists in the development of capabilities that enhance performance in the interorganizational relationship. The study blends theory in the areas of strategy, information systems, and management accounting and extends management accounting research in the context of IT-enabled interorganizational relationships.

Harnessing Financial Information in Investors Decissions: Accrual Accounting versus Cash Accounting

This study aims to analyze the influence of the value added of the information developed according on the two main accounting systems for investment decision making, with direct impact on the market capitalization of the listed companies. To obtain the research results, in the study were analyzed specific financial information, collected for a sample of 65 Romanian listed companies on the Bucharest Stock Exchange, between 2011 and 2013. For data analysis were used econometric models from the literature, based on the multiple regression analysis and adapted to the research objectives. At the level of the study, there was estimated and tested the influence of the information attained based on the use of cash accounting (quantified through the cash flow from operations, cash flow from investing and cash flow from financing) and based on the use of accrual accounting (quantified through the variation of the operating and net income) on the capital gains yield of listed companies. Research results show a growth of the value relevance of the information obtained based on the use of accrual accounting compared to the ones obtained as a result of cash accounting use, in the case of Romanian listed companies.

Control authority, business strategy, and the characteristics of management accounting information systems

Phenomenon of value to the information in Indonesia is that information is not used for making decision but for official concern. Using 195 response respondents from 430 managers of the manufacturing companies mostly from Jakarta, Indonesia, we analyse and test whether the formal, and informal structures control authority and business strategy influence the characteristics of management accounting information system (MAIS). We found that the formal, informal authority and business strategy significantly and positively influence the characteristics of MAIS. The informal and business strategy have big effect on the MAIS for decision making, while the formal one has very much less effect. The business strategy has a very dominant influence on developing the MAIS. The Formal authority is opposite and not in line with the informal one. Business strategy is more adaptive to the informal authority than the formal one. This provided that managers’ business strategy moderately be based not by the formal information provided, but the informal one.

Organization of Management Accounting Information in the Context of Corporate Strategy

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between strategic decisions and cost management in Bulgarian small and medium- sized enterprises, emphasizing the role of accountability in relation to the implementation of strategy, as well as offering practical solutions. To achieve the purpose of this paper, following basic methods are used: the method of analysis and synthesis; methods of the descriptive statistics, the comparison method, and the case study method. The results and findings of this paper in a more elaborated and depth form will enhance the methodology for corporate strategic planning connecting it to management reporting of small and medium-sized businesses. The results stemming from the research can also find a place or be further developed in the management practice of small and medium-sized enterprises.

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