سبد خرید

Development of the Cerebellum from Molecular Aspects to Diseases

Sotelo stated in his introduction for a consensus paper on cerebellar development (Leto et al., Cerebellum 15:789–828, 2015) that “The work done in the late nineteenth century until the late 1970s provided substantial and signifcant information; however, it was only descriptive and barely addressed the mechanisms
involved.” Observations and their description, the nomenclature that evolved from these studies, and the ideas they fostered, indeed, formed the basis for our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the complex development of the cerebellum, to be reviewed in this volume. This chapter will highlight some of these early contributions to the origin of the cerebellum, its histogenesis, the migration of its neurons, the development of the longitudinal Purkinje cell zones, their target nuclei and their connections, and the folial pattern of the cerebellum.

Handbook of Life Course Health Development

Over the past several decades, countless studies have linked early life events and experiences with adult health conditions, delineating the developmental origins of common chronic health conditions and specifying the processes by which both adversity and opportunity are integrated into developing biobehavioral systems (Baltes et al .2006; Bronfenbrenner 2005; Elder et al. 2015). As a result, there is a greater understanding of how health and disease develop, which is leading to new kinds of individual- and population-level strategies that have the potential to prevent disease and optimize health by minimizing the impact of adversity, increasing protective factors, and targeting health-promoting interventions to coincide with sensitive periods of health development. Insights and evidence from life course chronic disease epidemiology have converged with research from the felds of developmental biology, neuroscience, and developmental science, with studies of typical and atypical development and with new fndings from research examining the developmental origins of chronic disease. This wide-ranging research, all focused on understanding how health and disease develop, has involved researchers from a wide variety of disciplines. Life-span developmental psychologists, life course-focused sociologists, human capitalfocused economists, and political scientists studying the structure of social institutions are not only studying the same developmental processes; they are also working alongside epidemiologists, physicians, and basic scientists to better understand how health develops over the life course and how these health development processes promote human flourishing.

Development of In Vitro Maturation for Human Oocytes

The following factors are involved in the ovarian cycle (i.e., follicular development, ovulation, and corpus luteum formation) and the regulation of menstruation as a result of luteal regression. All these factors are so- called “classical hormones” that are secreted by specific cells or organs. These factors affect target organs via the bloodstream and constitute the core of the feedback mechanism of the diencephalon (hypothalamus)– pituitary–ovary–uterus system. A. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH); B. Gonadotropins: follicle- stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH); C. Steroid hormones: estrogen, androgens, progesterone, glucocorticoids, and mineralocorticoids; and D. Glycoproteins: inhibin, activin, follistatin, and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH). In this chapter, particularly important aspects of hormones A–D are selected and described. The menstrual cycle is controlled via regulation of GnRH, which is synthesized by the hypothalamus. GnRH, a polypeptide composed of 10 amino acids (Glu-His-Trp-Ser-Tyr-Gly-Leu-ArgPro-Gly- NH2), is a hormone that is secreted by the hypothalamus and that has an extremely short half-life (2–3 min). The GnRH-1 gene (GNRH1) is located on human chromosome 8 (8p11.2-p21) and produces a 92-amino acid precursor peptide called prepro-GnRH, which includes a signal sequence (23 amino acids), GnRH (10 amino acids), a proteolytic processing site (3 amino acids), and GnRH-associated peptide (56 amino acids).

Dermal Drug Selection and Development

In this chapter, the manner a new drug is discovered and selected as well as the costs, challenges and risks around the selection of a candidate molecule are discussed. As candidate quality impacts attrition in later phases of development this concept is developed as well. The aim is to frame the key aspects of drug candidate selection in general to place into context the challenges that a drug discovery team would face for the selection of a dermal drug candidate. Finally, specifc risks and opportunities for selecting such a dermal drug candidate are presented.

Development of Oral Cancer

Oral cancer is a major health burden particularly in the developing world where most of the cases are diagnosed . More than 300,000 new patients are estimated to be diagnosed with oral and oropharyngeal cancer in 2012, and 50% of these cases will die annually . The WHO International Statistical Classifcation of Diseases (ICD-10) defned oral and oropharyngeal cancer as the malignancy emerging from the anatomic sites that correspond to the rubrics C00–C10 of the ICD-10 . Specifcally, the involved oral anatomic subsites include the lips, buccal mucosa, alveolar ridge and gingiva, retromolar trigone, anterior two-thirds of the tongue (anterior to the circumvallate papillae), floor of the mouth and hard palate. The oropharynx (middle part of the pharynx) consists of the soft palate, base (or posterior one-third) of the tongue, palatine tonsils, palatoglossal folds, valleculae and posterior pharyngeal wall. Traditionally oral cancer was sometimes used to designate head and neck cancer that genuinely covers wider anatomical region with more heterogeneous nature. Though, for the purpose of this chapter, lip/mouth and oropharyngeal cancers have been combined and termed as oral and oropharyngeal cancer (OPC). Also, the cases originated from either nasopharynx or other pharynxes were excluded to distinguish it from the head and neck cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of malignancy that is diagnosed in the oral and oropharyngeal region with more than 95%.

Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

Operons (clusters of co-regulated genes with related functions) are common features of bacterial genomes. More recently, functional gene clustering has been reported in eukaryotes, from yeasts to filamentous fungi, plants, and animals. Gene clusters can consist of paralogous genes that have most likely arisen by gene duplication. However, there are now many examples of eukaryotic gene clusters that contain functionally related but non-homologous genes and that represent functional gene organizations with operon-like features (physical clustering and co-regulation). These include gene clusters for use of different carbon and nitrogen sources in yeasts, for production of antibiotics, toxins, and virulence determinants in filamentous fungi, for production of defense compounds in plants, and for innate and adaptive immunity in animals (the major histocompatibility locus). The aim of this article is to review features of functional gene clusters in prokaryotes and eukaryotes and the significance of clustering for effective function.

Information systems and sustainable supply chain management towards a more sustainable society: Where we are and where we are going

The objectives of this study are to identify and systematize scholarly articles on the use of information system to support sustainable supply chain management and to suggest future research opportunities. Therefore, a structured literature review was conducted. The most relevant studies identified were classified and categorized into seven dimensions: research context, research focus, research method, sectoranalyzed, information system (IS) beneficiaries, relationship between IS and green supply chain practices, and performance benefits. The main authors and articles on this particular topic were identified. In addition, it was concluded that IS is an important support tool for sustainable supply chain management practices since it brings benefits to the organization, suppliers, and customers. Furthermore, IS positively influences the operational, financial, and environmental performance of the organization. However, further advances in the literature are still needed. The major contribution of this research is related to the recommendations that provide opportunities for future research.

On the Research and Development of Social Internet of Things

The Internet of Things (IoT) has been a new trend in the IT business and the assembling group for quite a while. Yet, in this way, the battle with IoT is that it is attempting to locate an extraordinary advertising message about how it will specifically enhance human lives. It has been stated that the ones who are tied in a social network can give significantly give more exact responses to complicated issues than an individual alone. This rule has been seriously considered in different websites. Lately, with the help of IoT frameworks, it was made possible to connect billions of objects in a very short term. The Social Internet of Things (SIoT) is characterized as an IoT where things are fit for building social associations with different items, independently regarding people. In this chapter we propose to discuss on the origin, development and current status of SIoT and propose some scope for future studies.

liBeralization, migration, and development: the mexico-u S relationShip

Migration from Mexico to the United States has been increased by liberalization of the Mexican economy. Proponents of liberalization had maintained that it would reduce migration; indeed, they used this argument along with anti-immigrant sentiment as one basis on which to sell the North American Free Trade Agreement to the U.S. public. The anti-immigration demagogy was not only offensive in sentiment but also wrong in substance. Various impacts of liberalization have been causal factors moving people northward and maintaining the high rate of migration. This reality should force a reassessment of policy in the United States. A policy that accepted the reality of continuing migration and integrated the immigrants into the labor force with full rights could have widespread benefts.

Factors predisposing to the development of multiple sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disease, which is known to be more common in UK than many countries. While there are multiple genetic factors affecting risk of developing MS and disease severity within the condition, evidence on the rising worldwide prevalence and the increasing female to male preponderance has focused interest on environmental factors influencing MS risk. Data on several of these factors are reviewed, with particular focus on those such as vitamin intake, smoking and obesity, which may be influenced at a personal and population level by medical advice. When patients ask what has caused their illness, they are usually referring to the aetiology rather than the pathological basis. For example, people with multiple sclerosis (MS) asking about the cause of their condition are not interested so much in T-cell abnormalities and other immune dysfunction as knowing some of the factors that may have predisposed them to develop this autoimmune condition. The aim of this article is to review the data on MS risk factors, with particular emphasis on those which may be modifiable through medical advice at a personal and population level

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