Gray et al. (2014) examined the productivity of expert systems/artificial intelligence research in accounting and came to the conclusion that both research on and practice use of expert systems/ artificial intelligence had waned since the late 1990s. In our study, we reconsider these findings based on a broader view that is ‘artificial intelligence’ centric versus ‘expert systems’ centric. The results show that while there was a bit of a lull in the late 1990s, artificial intelligence research in accounting has continued to steadily increase over the past 30 years. Further consideration of artificial intelligence techniques as embedded modules in integrated audit support systems also suggest that use by practice continues to be robust. Based on these findings, we make a call for much more research on the usability, and use, of artificial intelligence techniques in accounting domains. Contrary to earlier perceptions, the research domain remains vibrant and holds great potential for AIS researchers to take a leadership role in advancing the field.
This paper investigates how environmental reporting (ER) and environment-related management accounting (EMA) practices may interact in the process of responding to disturbances of the natural environment (e.g., changes in environmental regulation, green consumerism, societal pressures for environmentally-responsible conduct). Based on data gathered in four Belgian case companies, we find that the emergence of an interplay between ER and EMA practices is related to the change pathways followed by these disturbances. Moreover, the strength of the environmental disturbances, top management commitment and the presence of an environmental champion are important contingent factors in understanding the development of a recursive relationship. Finally, the findings illustrate that an interplay between ER and EMA practices has the potential to foster or stifle organizational greening
This study uses Regulation Fair Disclosure (FD) as a plausibly exogenous shock to the information environment to identify the causal effect of information asymmetry on corporate financing behavior. Although Regulation FD prevents firms from selectively disclosing material information to market professionals in the equity market, firms can still do so to banks and rating agencies in the debt market. The standard’s differential disclosure requirements lead to differential changes in the information environments between the two markets, providing a reasonably useful setting to examine the effect of information asymmetry on firms’ capital structure. I find that firms with a high level of information asymmetry increase debt more than firms with a low level of information asymmetry post-Regulation FD. The results suggest that managers adjust the target leverage ratios to rely more on debt when facing higher costs of equity
Collectively, the EU is among the world’s largest greenhouse gas (GHG) emitters, though remarkable decreases in GHG emissions have been observed in recent years. In this work the GHG emissions for the 28 EU member states between 1991 and 2012 are accounted for and compared according to the inventory method of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The structure of GHG emissions at a national level, their distribution between countries, and trends across the period are then analyzed. National emission sources and sinks are decomposed for each country to elucidate the contribution of each sector (energy, industrial processes, solvents and other product use, agriculture, land use/landuse change and forestry, and waste) to the national totals. Germany was the largest emitter, with net emissions totaling 939 Tg CO2 equivalent in 2012, 60% more than the UK and 89% more than France, the second and third biggest emitters, respectively. The energy sector and agriculture were found to be the largest sources of emissions in most countries. Four quadrants were established to compare countries’ performance in emission intensity, carbon removal rate, and net reduction rate of GHG emissions. Slovenia, Portugal, Sweden, and Finland were located in Quadrant II as they displayed relatively low emission intensities and high carbon removal rates. Conversely, Hungary, Greece, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, and Poland were located in Quadrant IV because of their relatively high emission intensities and low carbon removal rates. Some suggestions for integrating the annual results and the trends both within and among countries into national and regional emissions reduction strategies are also included. The unified accounting framework and analysis of the structure of GHG emissions may also be useful for other countries and regions
The interorganizational environment faced by business organizations presents unique challenges for management accounting and control. Past management accounting research has shown interest in such collaborations because despite their benefits, such relationships pose significant issues of coordination and control. As information and communication systems supplement management control systems in their support of decision facilitation and decision influencing, examining the design of management accounting systems (MASs) in the management of interorganizational relationships and assessing how it affects the attainment of interorganizational exchange partner performance objectives is important. In this chapter, I extend past accounting research to examine the complementary nature of decision-facilitation and decisioninfluencing objectives of MAS design as enabled by the use of integrated information systems in interorganizational settings. The economic theory of complementarity is employed to examine synergistic effects of complementary MAS objectives. A field survey is used to examine hypothesized relationships, and data were obtained from 116 organizations involved in strategic alliance activity. This chapter reports findings that support the view that the degree of complementarity in decisionfacilitation and decision-influencing objectives assists in the development of capabilities that enhance performance in the interorganizational relationship. The study blends theory in the areas of strategy, information systems, and management accounting and extends management accounting research in the context of IT-enabled interorganizational relationships.
This study investigates factors and barriers which influence the practice of environmental management accounting (hereafter known as EMA)
This article is intended to understand environmental management accounting, its increasing importance, and new developments. The global profile of environmental issues has risen significantly during the past two decades, precipitated in part by major incidents such as the Bhopal chemical leak (1984) and the Exxon Valdez oil spill (1989). These events received worldwide media attention and increased concerns over major issues such as global warming, depletion of non-renewable resources, and loss of natural habitats. This study paper highlights on the utilization and benefits of using environmental management accounting for firms. In order to realize the uses and benefits of such a system, a framework is drawn to develop and implement an environmental management accounting system within an organization. The paper also compares and finds the difference between traditional financial accounting method and environmental management accounting to outline the importance of the later system in the current business environment. The research paper also discusses the methods of finding environmental costs and how the companies can accrue saving and generate revenues by separating environmental costs from general accounting. The paper attempts to find out the basic benefits companies can garner by adopting an efficient environment management accounting practice which has the primary role to lead a company in the path of progress through eco-friendly initiatives. Furthermore, the research would validate the use of system in aiding management decisions regarding designing environmental friendly products, attuning production process and managing wastes. Although, environmental management accounting is a new approach to improve the environmental performance of a company, proper implementation of the system can assure transparency for the company to report the environmental costs clearly and help them in accessing their corporate social responsibility initiatives as well. All this, in turn enhance the image of the company in the media as well as amongst its shareholders
Recent world events, most notably the global financial crisis, have refocused and intensified interest on risk and the nature of systems that operate to manage risk. One area that has received relatively little attention is the interrelation between risk, risk management and management accounting and control practices. This editorial provides an introduction to the special issue of the journal on “Risk and Risk Management in Management Accounting and Control”. It argues that risk and the way it is managed has become a feature of organizational life in both the public and private sectors. By changing organizational practices risk management can facilitate and legitimise certain ways of organizing. It has the potential to change lines of responsibility and accountability in organizations, representing a particular way of governing individuals and activities. The argument is further made that risk management has moved away from being an issue of narrow concern to finance (value at risk, derivatives, etc.) or accountants (financial statement disclosure, etc.) to an issue about management control and therefore a key area in which management accountants need to engage. This editorial also highlights the potential side-effects of risk management, including issues around trust and accountability, but also the focus on secondary or defensive risk management and the rise of reputation risk.
The purpose of this paper is to understand the effects of the institutional environment on project outcomes in order to contribute to the accumulating accounting literature on P3s. Based on an empirical study of Alberta’s institutional environment, using Edmonton’s Anthony Henday Highway P3 projects, we analyze how the: a) political environment enables or disenables P3 outcomes; b) policy/business environment impacts project development and implementation; and c) organizational capacity affects P3 outcomes and vice versa. Adopting a neo-institutionalism perspective and a case study approach, we investigate the effects of the institutional environment on P3 project outcomes. This research is based on 35 semi-structured interviews of public sector executive managers, political actors, senior industry executives, project consultants/advisors, labour union, media specialists, community advocates and public policy analysts in the P3 industry who participated in Alberta’s P3 projects from 2004 to 2016. We find that the institutional environment has significant influence on project performance, and program permanence/continuity. Our study suggests that P3 enabling environments present: 1) relevant P3 policy measures and committed political support by field actors; 2) a path-dependent response to project outcomes; and 3) institutional environment elements that are mutually re-enforcing with synergistic effects.
This study, which is informed by Foucault’s concept of governmentality, identifies the systematic ties between political discourse, forms of rationality and technologies of government during the first period that Napoleon governed Ferrara in northern Italy (1796–99).