Considerable fuel resource for the future, Transportation ease of gas hydrate (as natural gas phase state), likely role in global climate change and potential drilling hazards are the main reasons for researcher’s attraction to gas hydrate issues. The gas hydrates have been recognized as significant potential resources for the 21st century fuel. However, from the drilling perspective, the gas hydrates seem as dangerous drilling azards. Because of the importance of drilling operation as the first attempt to access energy sources, it is necessary to pay more attention to these hazards. The main objective of this article is to present a comprehensive review about the drilling problems related to hydrate formation in drilling operations and remedies of problems for understanding the problem in petroleum industry. Some of the notable problems, explained in this article, include wellbore stability, plugging chokes, kill lines, BOP, gas cut mud and sea floor stability. Different methods for the gas hydrate suppression during drilling operations and removing blockage practices are perused in this article.
Gas hydrate are ice-like compound in which hydrocarbon gas molecules become trapped within a lattice of water molecules under high- pressure and low-temperature condition (Solan, 1990) . Hydrates were first observed by Davy in 1810.They were introduced to the petroleum industry in 1934 by Hammerschmidt as substances which were responsible for the freezing of gas transmission lines . Methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, i-butane, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide are well-known hydrate-forming components . Gas hydrate is thought to be the largest reservoir of organic carbon on Earth and a source of dissolved organic matter to the oceans (Kvenvolden, 1993; Whelan et al., 1999) . Current estimates predict that the amount of gas sequestered in hydrates varies between 100,000-200,000 trillion cubic feet (TCF) (Collet, 1997) . This amount of energy trapped in gas hydrates all over the world is about twice the amount found in all recoverable fossil fuels today. The conditions necessary for the stability of gas hydrates are moderately low temperatures and moderately high pressures. These conditions could exist offshore in shallow depths below the ocean floor and onshore beneath the permafrost .
Publisher : 2nd National Iranian Conference on Gas Hydrate (NICGH)
By : Milad Poorfaraj Ghajari , Alireza Sabkdost , Hesam Taghipoor soghondikolaee
File Information: English Language/ 12 Page / size: 481 KB
سال : 1392
ناشر : دومین کنفرانس ملی هیدرات گاز (NICGH)
کاری از : میلاد پورفرج قاجاری، علیرضا صبد مستندی، حسام تقی پور سجادی کولیایی
اطلاعات فایل : زبان انگلیسی / 12 صفحه / حجم : KB 481