• A Finer Grained Approach-taliem-ir

    A Finer Grained Approach to Psychological Capital and Work Performance

    تومان

    Purpose Psychological capital is a set of personal resources comprised by hope, efficacy, optimism, and resilience, which previous research has supported as being valuable for general work performance. However, in todays organizations, a multidimensional approach is required to understanding work performance, thus, we aimed to determine whether psychological capital improves proficiency, adaptivity, and proactivity, and also whether hope, efficiency, resilience, and optimism have a differential contribution to the same outcomes. Analyzing the temporal meaning of each psychological capital dimension, this paper theorizes the relative weights of psychological capital dimensions on proficiency, adaptivity, and proactivity ,proposing also that higher relative weight dimensions are helpful to cope with job demands and perform well. Methodology Two survey studies, the first based on crosssectional data and the second on two waves of data, were conducted with employees from diverse organizations, who provided measures of their psychological capital, work performance, and job demands. Data was modeled with regression analysis together with relative weights analysis.

  • An exploration of the link-taliem-ir

    An exploration of the link between adult attachment and problematic Facebook use

    تومان

    Previous studies have reported on positive and negative psychological outcomes associated with the use of social networking sites (SNSs). Research efforts linking Facebook use with depression and low self-esteem have indicated that it might be the manner in which people engage with the site that makes its use problematic for some people. The aim of the current study was to test a theoretical model of problematic Facebook use, using adult attachment style as the predictor variable of interest. Method: A cross-sectional design was employed wherein adult Facebook users (n = 717) completed measures of psychological distress, self-esteem, and adult attachment, in addition to measures of problematic Facebook use (i.e. social comparison, self-disclosures, impression management, & intrusive Facebook use). Data were analysed using hierarchical multiple regression and mediation analyses. Results: The results of this study indicated that attachment anxiety was predictive of all facets of problematic Facebook use, and that attachment avoidance was predictive of impression management, and social consequences of intrusive Facebook use. Further analyses confirmed the mediating influences of psychological distress and selfesteem on these relationships. Conclusions: Users of Facebook with higher levels of attachment insecurity may be gravitating towards the site in order to fulfil their attachment needs. This tendency is likely to be particularly prevalent for those .individuals with low self-esteem who are experiencing psychological distress

  • Anger in the Classroom-taliem-ir

    Anger in the Classroom: How a Supposedly Negative Emotion Can Enhance Learning

    تومان

    There are times when teaching, despite how rewarding it can be, is an extraordinarily frustrating experience. It can be time-consuming and diffcult to do well, and even the best students do not always appreciate the hard work teachers put into their assignments and activities. Teachers are sometimes swamped with resource limitations that make it diffcult to achieve their learning outcomes, and even on their best days, they do not reach all the students they hope to reach. Plus, despite their best efforts, their innovative and grand plans for teaching do not always work, leaving them frustrated. As a psychologist who researches anger, I routinely come across people who feel that anger is a purely negative emotion. That, however, isn’t true. In fact, anger is usually a valuable emotional experience, as it alerts people to problems and energizes them to confront those problems (Deffenbacher 1996). In this chapter, I will draw upon my research on anger and my experiences as a college teacher of psychology to explore the reasons teachers become angry, the meaning of that anger, and how teachers can use the experience to motivate students and themselves toward better learning outcomes.

  • Archival research Expanding-taliem-ir

    Archival research: Expanding the methodological toolkit in social psychology

    تومان

    Laboratory experiments have many benefits and serve as a powerful tool for social psychology  research.However, relying too heavily on laboratory experiments leaves the entire discipline of social psychology vulnerable to the inherent limitations of laboratory research. We discuss the benefits of integrating archival research into the portfolio of tools for conducting social psychological research. Using four published examples, we discuss the benefits and limitations of conducting archival research. We also provide suggestions on how social psychological researchers can take advantage of the benefits while overcoming the weaknesses of archival research. Finally, we provide useful resources and  directions for utilizing archival data. We encourage socialpsychologists to increase the robustness of this scientific literature by supplementing laboratory experiments with archival research.

  • Art therapy improves mood-taliem-ir

    Art therapy improves mood, and reduces pain and anxiety when offered at bedside during acute hospital treatment

    تومان

    Art therapists can engage medical inpatients in the creation of art to encourage emotional and physical healing. Utilizing a chart review, the impact of art therapy sessions at the bedside with patients (N = 195) in a large urban teaching hospital was reviewed. The sample was predominantly female (n = 166) as more women than men agreed to participate in an art therapy session. As a routine part of regular clinical practice patients were asked to rate their perception of mood, anxiety, and pain using a 5-point faces scale before and after an art therapy session conducted by a registered art therapist. Multiple diagnoses were included in this chart review, making this study more representative of the variety of medical issues leading to hospitalization. Analysis of pre and post results demonstrated significant improvements in pain, mood, and anxiety levels of art therapy sessions for all patients regardless of gender, age, or diagnosis (all p < 0.001).

  • Association between mismatch-taliem-ir

    Association between mismatch negativity and voxel-based brain volume in schizophrenia

    تومان

    This study aimed to investigate the association between mismatch negativity (MMN) and volumes of several brain regions measured using a semi-automated method in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Methods: MMN in response to duration deviants and magnetic resonance imaging were acquired from 36 schizophrenia patients and 14 healthy controls. FreeSurfer was used for volumetric analysis. MMN amplitudes, brain volumes and their association were compared between schizophrenia and controls. Correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were used to examine the correlated variables of MMN. Results: MMN amplitude was significantly lower in the schizophrenia group. In schizophrenia, MMN was positively correlated with age and negatively correlated with left hippocampal and right pars opercularis volumes. The association between left hippocampal volume and MMN in schizophrenia remained significant after controlling for potential confounders. Conclusions: Smaller hippocampal volume may play a role in the abnormal manifestation of MMN in schizophrenia. Significance: The significant association between MMN and left hippocampal volume may suggest unique neurobiological contribution of hippocampus in auditory processing in schizophrenia.

  • Association between variations-taliem-ir

    Association between variations in the disrupted in schizophrenia 1 gene and schizophrenia: A meta-analysis

    تومان

    Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder. Genetic and functional studies have strongly implicated the disrupted in schizophrenia 1 gene (DISC1) as a candidate susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. Moreover, recent association studies have indicated that several DISC1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with schizophrenia. However, the association is hardly replicate in different ethnic group. Here, we performed a meta-analysis of the association between DISC1  SNPs and schizophrenia in which the samples were divided into subgroups according to ethnicity. Both rs3738401 and rs821616 showed not significantly association with schizophrenia in the Caucasian, Asian, Japanese or Han Chinese populations.

  • Association between vitamin-taliem-ir

    Association between vitamin D deficiency and depression in Nepalese population

    تومان

    Recent studies link vitamin D deficiency with depression; however evidences from the Nepalese population are scarce. The current study explored the association between vitamin D deficiency and depression among 300 adults of 18 years and above age residing in eastern Nepal. Validated Nepali version of the Beck  Depression Inventory scale (BDI-Ia) was used to determine depressive symptoms and a BDI cutoff score of ≥ 20 was considered as clinically significant depression. Sociodemographic data were collected using semi- structured questionnaire. Blood samples were collected to measure serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) and classify vitamin D status (deficient, insufficient and sufficient). We used Chi-square test to identify the association of sociodemographic variables and vitamin D status with clinically significant depression. We found a significant association of gender, geographical location of residence, marital status, religion and vitamin D status with clinically significant depression. Binary logistic regression model was used to examine the likelihood of clinically significant depression among vitamin D deficient individuals. Vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with increased odds of clinically significant depression even after adjusting for confounding variables. This finding suggests Vitamin D deficient people have increased odds of having clinically significant depression.

  • Classification of ADHD-taliem-ir

    Classification of ADHD with bi-objective optimization

    تومان

    Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common diseases in school aged  children. Inthis paper, we consider using fMRI data with classification techniques to aid the diagnosis of ADHD and propose a bi-objective ADHD classification scheme based on L1-norm support vector machine (SVM). In our classification model, two objectives, namely, the margin of separation and the empirical error are considered at the same time. Then the normal boundary intersection (NBI) method of Das and Dennis is used to solve the bi-objective optimization problem. A representative nondominated set which reflects the entire trade-off information between the two objectives is obtained. Each representative nondominated point in the set corresponds to an efficient classifier. Finally a decision maker can choose a final efficient classifier from the set according to the performance of each classifier. Our scheme avoids the trial and error process for regularization hyper-parameter selection. Experimental results show that our bi-objective optimization classification scheme for ADHD  diagnosisperforms considerably better than some traditional classification methods.

  • Communication satisfaction-taliem-ir

    Communication satisfaction and job satisfaction among critical care nurses and their impact on burnout and intention to leave: A questionnaire study

    تومان

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between communication and job satisfaction and their association with intention to leave and burnout among intensive care unit nurses. Research methodology/design: A multicentre questionnaire study. Setting/participants: Intensive care nurses (n = 303) from three Flemish hospitals. Main outcome measures: Communication satisfaction assessed by the Communication Satisfaction Questionnaire, intention to leave through the Turnover Intention Scale (from the Questionnaire for the Perception and Assessment of Labour) and burnout by the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Job satisfaction was measured by a visual analogue scale. Results: Average job satisfaction was 7.66 ± 1.34/10. Nurses were most satisfied about ‘Communication with supervisor’ (68.46%), and most dissatisfied about ‘Organisational perspectives’ (34.12%). Turnover intention was low among 49.5% (150/290) and high among 6.6%  (20/290). Three percent (9/299) of intensive care nurses were at risk for burnout. All dimensions of communication satisfaction were moderately associated with job satisfaction, intention to leave and burnout. Conclusion: This study demonstrated high levels of communication and job satisfaction in a sample of nurses in Flanders. Intention to leave and burnout prevalence were low. To a certain extent, communication satisfaction might be associated with job satisfaction, intention to leave and burnout.

  • Complementary Health Practices-taliem-ir

    Complementary Health Practices for Treating Perinatal Depression

    تومان

    Approximately 14% to 23% of women develop depression during pregnancy and up to 16.7% develop depression within 3 months postdelivery.1 Perinatal depression (PND) is underdiagnosed and few women receive treatment.2 Untreated PND is associated with functional impairment and adverse health  outcomes for mother and child,including obstetric and neonatal complications3 and a broad negative impact on child development.4 Maternal suicide is the leading cause of maternal death occurring within 1 year postpartum.5 Fortunately, safe and effective treatment options exist, including psychotherapy6 and antidepressants.7 However, an understanding of complementary health  practices (CHPs) is important, because perinatal women mayinquire about nonpharmacologic treatments. CHPs include a diverse range of practices that are developed outside of mainstream Western medicine. Most CHPs fall into two categories: natural products or mind and body practices. Natural products, including herbs, vitamins, minerals, and probiotics, are the most widely used CHP in the United States. Mind and body practices include techniques that are typically administered or taught by a practitioner. Physical activity interventions may also be conceptualized as a form of CHP. In general, women suffer from disorders, such as depression and anxiety, more often than men, for which CHPs are commonly pursued.8 Despite growing popularity of CHP, research is limited. In light of their increased use, we reviewed literature on CHPs for PND. We included specific approaches (ie, omega-3 fatty acids [O-3FA], folate, vitamin D, selenium, zinc, magnesium, B vitamins, physical activity, yoga) based on prevalence of use and availability of evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCT) in PND. In the absence of RCT evidence in PND, we included data from nonrandomized trials and studies addressing impact of these approaches on depressive symptoms within nonclinical populations.

  • Depression and metabolic-taliem-ir

    Depression and metabolic syndrome in the older population: a review of evidence

    تومان

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been shown to be associated with depression in older adults but the results are mixed. We summarized and evaluated the association between depression and MetS in people aged 60 years or over. Methods Relevant published studies from January 1997 to July 2017 were identified by searching two electronic databases: PubMed/Medline and EMBASE. Observational studies were considered. Results Twelve studies were included in the systematic review. Depression seemed to be related with MetS in the majority of the studies (10/12 = 83.3%). As far as the longitudinal studies are concerned, the onset of depression was related to MetS in 2 out of 3 studies (66.6%), while a relation between chronicity of depression and MetS was reported (1 study). Regarding cross-sectional studies, 7 out of 9 (77.7%) concluded that there was a positive association between depression and MetS. Mixed evidence was found among studies concerning the association between depression and the individual components of MetS. Four out of ten studies (40%) reported that depression was significantly associated with the waist circumference, a component of MetS.

  • Distribution of ADHD symptoms-taliem-ir

    Distribution of ADHD symptoms, and associated comorbidity, exposure to risk factors and disability: results from a general population study

    تومان

    The aim of this study was to examine whether ADHD is a dimensional trait in the adult general population. We studied whether an increased number of ADHD symptoms was associated with higher comorbidity, exposure to risk factors (childhood abuse and parental psychopathology), and disability. We ascertained whether even low numbers of ADHD symptoms were associated with an increased burden of disease. Data were used from the second wave of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2 (NEMESIS-2, N=5,303). NEMESIS-2 is a nationally representative face-toface survey on mental health of the Dutch general population. ADHD symptoms, mental comorbidity, and disability were assessed using the Adult ADHD Self- Report Scale Screener, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0, and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Health Survey, respectively. Dose-response relationships were found between the number of ADHD symptoms and Axis I and II mental disorders; exposure to risk factors; and mental and physical disability. Our study supports the notion that ADHD is a dimensional trait in the adult general population. Even low numbers of symptoms were associated with an increased burden of disease, and therefore these should be identified and treated.

  • Emotional Intelligence-taliem-ir

    Emotional Intelligence and Day-To-Day Emotion Regulation Processes: Examining Motives for Social Sharing

    تومان

    There is growing interest in the emotion regulation processes that underlie the adaptive functioning of  emotionally intelligent individuals. This study uses experience sampling to examine whether the emotional intelligence (EI) of undergraduate students (N = 84) relates to their day-to-day use of five emotion regulation processes over a five-day period. We also test whether EI predicts motives for one of the emotion regulation processes (social sharing). We measure both ability EI (the brief Situational Test of Emotion Management) and self-rated EI (the Self-Rated Emotional Intelligence Scale). Self-rated EI significantly predicts more social sharing, direct situation modification and reappraisal. Ability EI does not significantly predict any of the five regulation processes. Both ability and self-rated EI are significantly related to greater bonding and relief  motives for social sharing. Self-rated EI is also related to recovery motives. These results suggest that it is the self-beliefs about one’s emotional abilities, rather than emotion knowledge, which influence the emotion regulation processes people use in daily life.

  • Exercise as a treatment-taliem-ir

    Exercise as a treatment modality for depression: A narrative review

    تومان

    Depression is a major health burden associated with poor quality of life and impaired functioning. Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide and is associated with profound economic costs. Depression is usually treated with antidepressant medications and psychological therapy or combination of both. However, there are lot of limitations associated with these therapies and as a result, a number of alternative or adjunctive therapies have been sought for. Exercise is one such option with a lot of substantial supportive research. The objective of the article was to review the beneficial effects of exercise in depression. An electronic search of literature from inception till 06/2017 highlighting the effects of exercise on depression and the possible mechanistic pathways involved was conducted using PubMed/ Medline, Google scholar and Scopus and relevant articles were utilized for this review. The results of this review confirmed the beneficial role of exercise in depression as evidenced by the improvement in the outcomes and the various psychobiological parameters measured. Thus exercise can be considered as a treatment option for the management of depression.

  • Exploring the role of sedentary-taliem-ir

    Exploring the role of sedentary behavior and physical activity in depression and anxiety symptom severity among patients with substance use disorders

    تومان

    Research has consistently shown that regular physical activity may protect against the development and maintenance of depression and anxiety, whereas sedentary behavior may exacerbate depression and anxiety. However, much of the past research in this area has focused on non-clinical populations. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine the relations of physical activity and sedentary behavior to depression and anxiety symptom severity among an understudied patient population, patients in residential substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. This study also sought to determine the extent to which physical activity and sedentary behavior relate to depression and anxiety symptom severity above and beyond an established transdiagnostic risk factor for depression and anxiety, emotion dysregulation. A sample of 41 patients from a residential SUD treatment facility completed a variety of self-report measures focused on physical activity, sedentary behavior, emotion dysregulation, and depression and anxiety symptom severity. Physical activity, but not sedentary behavior, was found to significantly predict depression symptom severity above and beyond emotion dysregulation. Physical activity and sedentary behavior did not significantly predict anxiety symptom severity above and beyond emotion dysregulation. In addition to providing additional support for the relevance of emotion dysregulation to depression and anxiety symptom severity, results suggest that physical activity may be another factor to consider in evaluating risk for depression among patients with SUDs. Although additional research in this area is warranted, results also suggest the potential utility of targeting physical activity in reducing risk for depression among patients with SUDs.

  • Global trends in research-taliem-ir

    Global trends in research related to social media in psychology: mapping and bibliometric analysis

    تومان

    Background: Social media, defned as interactive Web applications, have been on the rise globally, particularly among adults. The objective of this study was to investigate the trend of the literature related to the most used social network worldwide (i.e. Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Snapchat, and Instagram) in the feld of psychology. Specif‑ cally, this study will assess the growth in publications, citation analysis, international collaboration, author produc‑ tivity, emerging topics and the mapping of frequent terms in publications pertaining to social media in the feld of sychology. Methods: Publications related to social media in the feld of psychology published between 2004 and 2014 were obtained from the Web of Science. The records extracted were analysed for bibliometric characteristics such as the growth in publications, citation analysis, international collaboration, emerging topics and the mapping of frequent terms in publications pertaining to social media in the feld of psychology. VOSviewer v.1.6.5 was used to construct scientifc maps. Results: Overall, 959 publications were retrieved during the period between 2004 and 2015. The number of research publications in social media in the feld of psychology showed a steady upward growth. Publications from the USA accounted for 57.14% of the total publications and the highest h‑index (48).The most common document type was research articles (873; 91.03%). Over 99.06% of the publications were published in English. Computers in Human Behavior was the most prolifc journal. The University of WisconsinMadison ranked frst in terms of the total publica‑ tions (n = 39). A visualisation analysis showed that personality psychology, experimental psychology, psychological risk factors, and developmental psychology were continual concerns of the research. Conclusions: This is the frst study reporting the global trends in the research related to social media in the psychol‑ ogy feld. Based on the raw data from the Web of Science, publication characteristics such as quality and quantity were assessed using bibliometric techniques over 12 years. The USA and its institutions play a dominant role in this topic. The most preferred topics related to social media in psychology are personality psychology, experimental psy‑ chology, psychological risk factors, and developmental psychology.

  • Handbook.of.Pediatric.Psychology.5th.Edition.[taliem.ir]

    Handbook of PEDIATRIC PSYCHOLOGY

    تومان

    The feld of pediatric psychology includes both research and clinical practice that address a range of issues related to physical and psychological development, health, and illness among children, adolescents, and their families. As part of a multifaceted feld, scientist-practitioners in pediatric psychology explore the relationships among psychological and physical health and the welfare of children and adolescents within a developmental perspective, considering the contexts of families, caregivers, health care systems, schools, peers, and community (Steele & Aylward, 2009). This chapter provides a brief history of the feld, including organizational developments; describes research and training in the feld; and makes projections for the future of pediatric psychology.

  • Hidden hypotheses-taliem-ir

    Hidden hypotheses in ‘hypothesis-free’ genome-wide epigenetic associations

    تومان

    The recent interest in epigenetics within mental health research, from a developmental perspective, stems from the potential of DNA methylation to index both exposure to adversity and vulnerability for mental health problems. Genome-wide technology has facilitated epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS), permitting ‘hypothesis-free’ examinations in relation to adversity and/or mental health problems. In EWAS, rather than focusing on a priori established candidate genes, the genome is screened for DNA methylation, thereby enabling a more comprehensive representation of variation associated with complex disease. Despite their ‘hypothesis-free’ label, however, results of EWAS are in fact conditional on several a priori hypotheses, dictated by the design of EWAS platforms as well as assumptions regarding the relevance of the biological tissue for mental health phenotypes. In this short report, we review three hidden hypotheses — and provide recommendations — that combined will be useful in designing and interpreting EWAS projects.

  • Homeopathy in the treatment-taliem-ir

    Homeopathy in the treatment of depression: a systematic review

    تومان

    Depression is a common reason for patients to consult homeopaths. This review aims to assess the efficacy, effectiveness and safety of homeopathy in depression. Methods: Thirty databases/sources used to identify studies reporting on homeopathy in depression, published between 1982 and 2016. Studies were assessed for their risk of bias, model validity, aspect of homeopathy and comparator.  Results: Eighteen studies assessing homeopathy in depression were identified. Two double-blind placebo-controlled trials of homeopathic medicinal products (HMPs) for depression were identified. The first trial (N=91) with high risk of bias found HMPs were non-inferior to fluoxetine at 4 (p=0.654) and 8 weeks (p=0.965); whereas the second trial (N=133), with low risk of bias, found HMPs was comparable to fluoxetine (p=0.082) and superior to placebo (p<0.005) at 6 weeks. The remaining research had unclear/high risk of bias. A non-placebo- ontrolled RCT found standardised treatment by homeopaths comparable to fluvoxamine; a cohort study of patients receiving treatment provided by GPs practising homeopathy reported significantly lower consumption of psychotropic drugs and improved depression; and patient-reported outcomes showed at least moderate improvement in 10 of 12 uncontrolled studies. Fourteen titles provided safety data. All adverse events were mild or moderate, and transient. No evidence suggested treatment was unsafe. Conclusions: Limited evidence from two placebo-controlled double-blinded trials suggests HMPs might be comparable to antidepressants and superior to placebo in depression, and patients treated by homeopaths report improvement in depression. Overall, the evidence gives a potentially promising risk benefit ratio. There is a need for additional high quality studies.

  • How can Psychology inform-taliem-ir

    How can Psychology inform disaster research?

    تومان

    This paper will set out our current understanding of how psychology can help us to understand and influence preparation for, and responses to disaster. Using four primary research studies, this paper will outline how psychology can inform our knowledge of all stages of a disaster (preparedness, immediate response and long-term consequences). The first study used a questionnaire design to examine factors that influence evacuation behaviours. The second and third studies explored physiological and psychological responses to simulated disaster training. The fourth study explored the consequences of trauma exposure focusing specifically on predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder and post-traumatic growth. The results show that psychology can play a role in our understanding of human behaviour during a disaster. Specifically, study one shows how psychology can inform disaster preparation by identifying barriers to evacuation. The second and third studies show how psychology can help us to explore and predict human behaviour during a disaster. Finally, the fourth study highlights how  psychology can help us to understand the longer-term impactof exposure to traumatic events. Overall, the results of these studies show that psychological knowledge can predict and positively influence human behaviour in response to disasters.

     

  • How treatment improvement-taliem-ir

    How treatment improvement in ADHD and cocaine dependence are related to one another: A secondary analysis

    تومان

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is overrepresented among individuals seeking treatment for substance use disorders. We previously reported that treatment with extended release mixed amphetamine salts (MAS-XR) increased abstinence, compared to placebo, among patients with co-occurring ADHD and cocaine dependence. This secondary analysis investigates the temporal  relationship between ADHD improvement and cocaineabstinence in the first six weeks of the trial. Methods: The study was a three-arm, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, 14-week trial comparing MAS-XR (60mg or 80mg daily) versus placebo among 126 participants with ADHD and cocaine dependence. An autoregressive cross-lagged structural equation model was fit and evaluated weekly ADHD improvement (defined as > 30% reduction in the Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale) and urine-confirmed abstinence over the first six weeks. Results: The proportion of patients with each of the possible overall patterns of response was: ADHD improves before cocaine abstinence: 24%; Cocaine abstinence occurs before ADHD improvement: 12%; ADHD improvement and abstinence occur during the same week: 6%;  ADHD improves but abstinence never achieved: 34%; Abstinence achieved but ADHD never improves: 6%; Neither ADHD improvement nor abstinence: 18%.  A significant cross-laggedassociation was found; subjects with ADHD improvement at week 2 had significantly higher odds of cocaine abstinence at week 3 (p = .014). Conclusion: When treating co-occurring ADHD and cocaine dependence with stimulant medication, abstinence is most likely preceded by improvement in ADHD, which tends to occur early with medication treatment. Other observed temporal patterns suggest the potential .complexity of the relationship between ADHD and cocaine .dependence

  • Individual differences in the effects-taliem-ir

    Individual differences in the effects of a positive psychology intervention: Applied psychology

    تومان

    Objectives: A 6-week multicomponent positive psychology intervention (PPI) was assessed with the primary aim of determining its effects on affective variables including anxiety, depression and  psychological distress, as wellas processual ones, such as mindfulness and emotion regulation. Exploratory investigations were conducted to consider changes in individual differences according to baseline characteristics. Method: Participants were from a community sample of the French population. They were assigned to the control (n = 43) or intervention group (n = 59). Self-assessment measures  included the Mindful AttentionAwareness Scale, Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire,  pielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and the General Health Questionnaire. Results: Trait anxiety, depressive symptoms and psychological distress significantly decreased over the course of the PPI in comparison to the control group. Regarding processual variables, mindfulness increased with a large effect size, acceptance and positive reappraisal increased, and scores for other-blame strategy significantly decreased. Exploratory analyses showed that mindfulness and positive reappraisal tended to increase even more when participants’ initial levels were low. Conclusion: Future clinical interventions should account for baseline characteristics to ensure that participants are referred to the most effective, suitable programs for their own needs.

  • Inhibition of return (IOR)-taliem-ir

    Inhibition of return (IOR) in patients with schizophrenia and cannabis use

    تومان

    Research concerning the spatial orientation in patients with schizophrenia has demonstrated a state independent deficit in inhibition of return (IOR), which has been discussed as a vulnerability marker for schizophrenia. Other recent investigations on brain structure and cognitive processing have revealed less deficits in schizophrenia patients with comorbid cannabis use (SCH+CUD) compared to abstinent  schizophrenia patients (SCH). It was hypothesized that these results may reflect a premorbid lower vulnerability in at least a subgroup of comorbid patients. The aim of the present study is to extend previous work by investigating IOR functioning in patients with schizophrenia and cannabis use. This in turn should supplement the existing studies on the vulnerability of this patient group. Therefore, we compared IOR functioning in four groups: 62 patients with schizophrenia and 46 healthy controls, both with and without cannabis use. Participants underwent a covert orienting of attention task (COVAT) with peripheral cues and three stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs: 200 ms, 400 ms and 800 ms). Both schizophrenia groups displayed delayed IOR with a more pronounced IOR effect in SCH+CUD compared to SCH. In healthy controls, IOR did not seem to be significantly affected by cannabis use. Significant IOR-differences between groups were only seen between SCH patients without cannabis use and both healthy groups at SOA 400 ms. Patterns of cannabis use as well as clinical parameters of psychoses did not affect IOR. Our results may support the hypothesis of IOR as a vulnerability marker for schizophrenia and of a lower biological vulnerability in at least a subgroup of SCH+CUD.

  • Integrated Datasets-taliem-ir

    Integrated Datasets on Transformational Leadership Attributes and Employee Engagement: The Moderating role of Job Satisfaction in the Fast Moving Consumer Goods Industry

    تومان

    Transformational leadership has gained a great deal of attention since its development through research and evaluations from James MacGregor Burns and Bernard Bass. But central to  itsdevelopment, there are still uncertainties regarding the attributes and interventions of transformational leadership style in developing nations like Nigeria. Hence, this article presented an integrated datasets on transformational leadership attributes, employee satisfaction and engagement using selected Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCGs) firms in Nigeria. The study adopted a descriptive research design to establish trends and the quantitative approach was employed using survey questionnaire. A sample size of three hundred and fifty-nine (359) staff and management of sampled firms were selected. Data was analysed with the use of measurement and structural equation modelling and the field data set is made widely accessible to enable critical or a more comprehensive investigation. The findings identified intellectual stimulation (creativity and innovation) and attributed charisma as predictive determinants of transformational leadership attributes for increased satisfaction and engagement of sampled firms. It was recommended that FCMGs firms need to invest necessary resources in developing strategies and interventions to identify differing needs, abilities, and aspirations for staff satisfaction.

  • Intellect and openness-taliem-ir

    Intellect and openness differentially predict affect: Perceived and objective cognitive ability contexts

    تومان

    The characteristics of Openness and Intellect suggest they may be differentially correlated with affect. In  Study 1 (n = 224) we examined associations between Openness/Intellect and well-being. Additionally, we included variables related to ability perception: subjectively assessed intelligence and satisfaction with intelligence. In Study 2 (n = 216) we explored how Intellect/Openness predict subjective stress states related to performance of intelligence tests. Across studies, Intellect was consistently correlated with more positive affective states (mood and satisfaction), and lower stress. Openness affect associations were inconsistent across studies, although Openness correlated with higher task-related worry and lower positive emotionality. Furthermore, in Study 1, satisfaction with one’s intelligence fully mediated associations between Intellect and measures of positive affect. In Study 2, worry mediated the association between Intellect and intelligence test performance.

  • Job satisfaction and the factors-taliem-ir

    Job satisfaction and the factors affecting satisfaction in nurse educators: A systematic review

    تومان

    Objectives: The present study seeks to answer the following two questions: Are nurse educators satisfied with their job? What are the factors affecting job satisfaction in nurse educators? Background: Nurse educators’ job satisfaction has a significant role in the efficiency and performance of nursing schools.  Identifying the factors affecting job satisfaction in nurse educators is essential to improving their quality of work and ultimately training efficient students and nurses. Evaluation: The present systematic review searched databases including PubMed, Medline, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct, ProQuest, Google Scholar and SID for articles published up to April 24, 2018, using keywords including Nurse Teachers, Nurse Faculty, Academic Nurses, Nurse Educators, Dis/Satisfaction, Work, Career, Professional, Practice and Job. Of the total of 971 articles extracted, only 74 remained for the final analysis after the qualitative assessment. Key Issue: The articles included in the analysis investigated the relationship between job satisfaction and its contributing factors rather than providing an accurate report on job satisfaction. Nonetheless, a number of the articles had reported fairly to very favorable levels of job satisfaction. The factors affecting nurse educators’ job satisfaction were categorized into six levels, including personal, organizational, managerial, academic, professional and economic levels. Conclusion: Although job satisfaction was reported relatively well in the nurse educators, this condition depends on several indices. The lack of positive steps toward job satisfaction in nurse educators leads to destructive behaviors and turnover intentions; meanwhile, it is satisfied educators who can train competent nurses.

  • Job Stress and Burnout Syndrome-taliem-ir

    Job Stress and Burnout Syndrome among Critical Care Healthcare Workers

    تومان

    Among healthcare professions, critical care healthcare workers (HCWs) have one of the most stressful jobs. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between job stress and burnout syndrome (BOS) among nurses and healthcare technicians at the surgical emergency department and intensive care unit of Critical Care department at the Alexandria University Hospital. Methods: A cross-sectional approach was conducted from October 2014 to March 2015. Eighty-two nurses and healthcare technicians participated in the research (response rate = 80.39%). Data was collected by an interview questionnaire using selected subscales of NIOSH Generic job stress Questionnaire and Maslach Burnout Inventory of Health and human service Questionnaire. The relationship between BOS and job stress was examined using bivariate and  multivariate analyses. Results: Although majority of participants reported variation of workload (84.15%), quantitative overload (76.8%), responsibility for peoples’ life (69.5%) and lack of perceived control (63.41%), yet, 85.4% were satisfied with their job. Moreover, high levels of emotional exhaustion was reported by the majority of participants (80%), while less than one third reported either high levels of depersonalization or low levels of personal accomplishment domains of BOS. In multiple regression analysis, skill underutilization, variation in workload, and intragroup conflicts were negatively associated with BOS domains. While, job satisfaction and responsibility for peoples’ life were positively associated with personal accomplishment domain of BOS. Conclusion: Critical care HCWs had high BOS. The study concluded that reducing intragroup conflict, improving skills utilization, and raising job satisfaction are crucial to reduce BOS among critical care HCWs. More attention and psychological support is recommended to critical care HCWs.

  • Measuring Employee Happiness-taliem-ir

    Measuring Employee Happiness: Analyzing the Dimensionality of Employee Engagement

    تومان

    Employee happiness or well-being is crucial in any organization as happy employees are said to be more committed in their work. In measuring happiness, one of the important aspects that should be considered is the level of employee engagement. A two-phase study was conducted to identify dimensions of employee engagement involving a focus group and a survey. During the focus group, various aspects of work that make them engaged were identified. At a later stage, items were developed based on the identified  dimensions and data were collected from 9653 respondents. Using a principle component factor analysis, the results indicate the existence of three factors that explained engagement. The results of regression analysis show that all three factors significantly influence employee happiness. This three-factor engagement model should be used to gauge the levels of employee engagement so that their levels of happiness can be enhanced.

  • Metabolic syndrome-taliem-ir

    Metabolic syndrome, depression and anhedonia among young adults

    تومان

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between anhedonia and metabolic syndrome in a well- characterized community sample of individuals with a current depressive episode. This is a cross-sectional study with young adults aged 24 to 30 years old. Depressive episode and the presence of anhedonia was assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview – Plus version (MINI Plus). The MetS was assessed using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP/ATP III). The sample included 931 subjects, being 22 had depression without anhedonia, whereas 55 had depression with anhedonia. MetS was more prevalent among subjects with depression and anhedonia (43.6%) when compared to individuals without anhedonia and population control group. Moreover, subjects with depression and anhedonia have a significant increase of levels of glucose, triglycerides, total-cholesterol and LDLcholesterol, as well as significant decreased in the HDL-cholesterol level. The present study showed that individuals with depression and anhedonia present higher prevalence of MetS. Our study suggests that the use of the concept of anhedonia may contribute to a better understanding of the complex relationship between depression and metabolic syndrome.