- ترتیب محصولات: پیش فرض
A Finer Grained Approach to Psychological Capital and Work Performance0 تومان
Purpose Psychological capital is a set of personal resources comprised by hope, efficacy, optimism, and resilience, which previous research has supported as being valuable for general work performance. However, in today’s organizations, a multidimensional approach is required to understanding work performance, thus, we aimed to determine whether psychological capital improves proficiency, adaptivity, and proactivity, and also whether hope, efficiency, resilience, and optimism have a differential contribution to the same outcomes. Analyzing the temporal meaning of each psychological capital dimension, this paper theorizes the relative weights of psychological capital dimensions on proficiency, adaptivity, and proactivity ,proposing also that higher relative weight dimensions are helpful to cope with job demands and perform well. Methodology Two survey studies, the first based on crosssectional data and the second on two waves of data, were conducted with employees from diverse organizations, who provided measures of their psychological capital, work performance, and job demands. Data was modeled with regression analysis together with relative weights analysis.
Anger in the Classroom: How a Supposedly Negative Emotion Can Enhance Learning0 تومان
There are times when teaching, despite how rewarding it can be, is an extraordinarily frustrating experience. It can be time-consuming and diffcult to do well, and even the best students do not always appreciate the hard work teachers put into their assignments and activities. Teachers are sometimes swamped with resource limitations that make it diffcult to achieve their learning outcomes, and even on their best days, they do not reach all the students they hope to reach. Plus, despite their best efforts, their innovative and grand plans for teaching do not always work, leaving them frustrated. As a psychologist who researches anger, I routinely come across people who feel that anger is a purely negative emotion. That, however, isn’t true. In fact, anger is usually a valuable emotional experience, as it alerts people to problems and energizes them to confront those problems (Deffenbacher 1996). In this chapter, I will draw upon my research on anger and my experiences as a college teacher of psychology to explore the reasons teachers become angry, the meaning of that anger, and how teachers can use the experience to motivate students and themselves toward better learning outcomes.
Art therapy improves mood, and reduces pain and anxiety when offered at bedside during acute hospital treatment0 تومان
Art therapists can engage medical inpatients in the creation of art to encourage emotional and physical healing. Utilizing a chart review, the impact of art therapy sessions at the bedside with patients (N = 195) in a large urban teaching hospital was reviewed. The sample was predominantly female (n = 166) as more women than men agreed to participate in an art therapy session. As a routine part of regular clinical practice patients were asked to rate their perception of mood, anxiety, and pain using a 5-point faces scale before and after an art therapy session conducted by a registered art therapist. Multiple diagnoses were included in this chart review, making this study more representative of the variety of medical issues leading to hospitalization. Analysis of pre and post results demonstrated significant improvements in pain, mood, and anxiety levels of art therapy sessions for all patients regardless of gender, age, or diagnosis (all p < 0.001).
Association between mismatch negativity and voxel-based brain volume in schizophrenia0 تومان
This study aimed to investigate the association between mismatch negativity (MMN) and volumes of several brain regions measured using a semi-automated method in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Methods: MMN in response to duration deviants and magnetic resonance imaging were acquired from 36 schizophrenia patients and 14 healthy controls. FreeSurfer was used for volumetric analysis. MMN amplitudes, brain volumes and their association were compared between schizophrenia and controls. Correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were used to examine the correlated variables of MMN. Results: MMN amplitude was significantly lower in the schizophrenia group. In schizophrenia, MMN was positively correlated with age and negatively correlated with left hippocampal and right pars opercularis volumes. The association between left hippocampal volume and MMN in schizophrenia remained significant after controlling for potential confounders. Conclusions: Smaller hippocampal volume may play a role in the abnormal manifestation of MMN in schizophrenia. Significance: The significant association between MMN and left hippocampal volume may suggest unique neurobiological contribution of hippocampus in auditory processing in schizophrenia.
Association between vitamin D deficiency and depression in Nepalese population0 تومان
Recent studies link vitamin D deficiency with depression; however evidences from the Nepalese population are scarce. The current study explored the association between vitamin D deficiency and depression among 300 adults of 18 years and above age residing in eastern Nepal. Validated Nepali version of the Beck Depression Inventory scale (BDI-Ia) was used to determine depressive symptoms and a BDI cutoff score of ≥ 20 was considered as clinically significant depression. Sociodemographic data were collected using semi- structured questionnaire. Blood samples were collected to measure serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) and classify vitamin D status (deficient, insufficient and sufficient). We used Chi-square test to identify the association of sociodemographic variables and vitamin D status with clinically significant depression. We found a significant association of gender, geographical location of residence, marital status, religion and vitamin D status with clinically significant depression. Binary logistic regression model was used to examine the likelihood of clinically significant depression among vitamin D deficient individuals. Vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with increased odds of clinically significant depression even after adjusting for confounding variables. This finding suggests Vitamin D deficient people have increased odds of having clinically significant depression.
Classification of ADHD with bi-objective optimization0 تومان
Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common diseases in school aged children. Inthis paper, we consider using fMRI data with classification techniques to aid the diagnosis of ADHD and propose a bi-objective ADHD classification scheme based on L1-norm support vector machine (SVM). In our classification model, two objectives, namely, the margin of separation and the empirical error are considered at the same time. Then the normal boundary intersection (NBI) method of Das and Dennis is used to solve the bi-objective optimization problem. A representative nondominated set which reflects the entire trade-off information between the two objectives is obtained. Each representative nondominated point in the set corresponds to an efficient classifier. Finally a decision maker can choose a final efficient classifier from the set according to the performance of each classifier. Our scheme avoids the trial and error process for regularization hyper-parameter selection. Experimental results show that our bi-objective optimization classification scheme for ADHD diagnosisperforms considerably better than some traditional classification methods.
Complementary Health Practices for Treating Perinatal Depression0 تومان
Approximately 14% to 23% of women develop depression during pregnancy and up to 16.7% develop depression within 3 months postdelivery.1 Perinatal depression (PND) is underdiagnosed and few women receive treatment.2 Untreated PND is associated with functional impairment and adverse health outcomes for mother and child,including obstetric and neonatal complications3 and a broad negative impact on child development.4 Maternal suicide is the leading cause of maternal death occurring within 1 year postpartum.5 Fortunately, safe and effective treatment options exist, including psychotherapy6 and antidepressants.7 However, an understanding of complementary health practices (CHPs) is important, because perinatal women mayinquire about nonpharmacologic treatments. CHPs include a diverse range of practices that are developed outside of mainstream Western medicine. Most CHPs fall into two categories: natural products or mind and body practices. Natural products, including herbs, vitamins, minerals, and probiotics, are the most widely used CHP in the United States. Mind and body practices include techniques that are typically administered or taught by a practitioner. Physical activity interventions may also be conceptualized as a form of CHP. In general, women suffer from disorders, such as depression and anxiety, more often than men, for which CHPs are commonly pursued.8 Despite growing popularity of CHP, research is limited. In light of their increased use, we reviewed literature on CHPs for PND. We included specific approaches (ie, omega-3 fatty acids [O-3FA], folate, vitamin D, selenium, zinc, magnesium, B vitamins, physical activity, yoga) based on prevalence of use and availability of evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCT) in PND. In the absence of RCT evidence in PND, we included data from nonrandomized trials and studies addressing impact of these approaches on depressive symptoms within nonclinical populations.
Distribution of ADHD symptoms, and associated comorbidity, exposure to risk factors and disability: results from a general population study0 تومان
The aim of this study was to examine whether ADHD is a dimensional trait in the adult general population. We studied whether an increased number of ADHD symptoms was associated with higher comorbidity, exposure to risk factors (childhood abuse and parental psychopathology), and disability. We ascertained whether even low numbers of ADHD symptoms were associated with an increased burden of disease. Data were used from the second wave of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2 (NEMESIS-2, N=5,303). NEMESIS-2 is a nationally representative face-toface survey on mental health of the Dutch general population. ADHD symptoms, mental comorbidity, and disability were assessed using the Adult ADHD Self- Report Scale Screener, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0, and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Health Survey, respectively. Dose-response relationships were found between the number of ADHD symptoms and Axis I and II mental disorders; exposure to risk factors; and mental and physical disability. Our study supports the notion that ADHD is a dimensional trait in the adult general population. Even low numbers of symptoms were associated with an increased burden of disease, and therefore these should be identified and treated.
Exercise as a treatment modality for depression: A narrative review0 تومان
Depression is a major health burden associated with poor quality of life and impaired functioning. Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide and is associated with profound economic costs. Depression is usually treated with antidepressant medications and psychological therapy or combination of both. However, there are lot of limitations associated with these therapies and as a result, a number of alternative or adjunctive therapies have been sought for. Exercise is one such option with a lot of substantial supportive research. The objective of the article was to review the beneficial effects of exercise in depression. An electronic search of literature from inception till 06/2017 highlighting the effects of exercise on depression and the possible mechanistic pathways involved was conducted using PubMed/ Medline, Google scholar and Scopus and relevant articles were utilized for this review. The results of this review confirmed the beneficial role of exercise in depression as evidenced by the improvement in the outcomes and the various psychobiological parameters measured. Thus exercise can be considered as a treatment option for the management of depression.