• A Finer Grained Approach-taliem-ir

    A Finer Grained Approach to Psychological Capital and Work Performance

    تومان

    Purpose Psychological capital is a set of personal resources comprised by hope, efficacy, optimism, and resilience, which previous research has supported as being valuable for general work performance. However, in todays organizations, a multidimensional approach is required to understanding work performance, thus, we aimed to determine whether psychological capital improves proficiency, adaptivity, and proactivity, and also whether hope, efficiency, resilience, and optimism have a differential contribution to the same outcomes. Analyzing the temporal meaning of each psychological capital dimension, this paper theorizes the relative weights of psychological capital dimensions on proficiency, adaptivity, and proactivity ,proposing also that higher relative weight dimensions are helpful to cope with job demands and perform well. Methodology Two survey studies, the first based on crosssectional data and the second on two waves of data, were conducted with employees from diverse organizations, who provided measures of their psychological capital, work performance, and job demands. Data was modeled with regression analysis together with relative weights analysis.

  • An exploration of the link-taliem-ir

    An exploration of the link between adult attachment and problematic Facebook use

    تومان

    Previous studies have reported on positive and negative psychological outcomes associated with the use of social networking sites (SNSs). Research efforts linking Facebook use with depression and low self-esteem have indicated that it might be the manner in which people engage with the site that makes its use problematic for some people. The aim of the current study was to test a theoretical model of problematic Facebook use, using adult attachment style as the predictor variable of interest. Method: A cross-sectional design was employed wherein adult Facebook users (n = 717) completed measures of psychological distress, self-esteem, and adult attachment, in addition to measures of problematic Facebook use (i.e. social comparison, self-disclosures, impression management, & intrusive Facebook use). Data were analysed using hierarchical multiple regression and mediation analyses. Results: The results of this study indicated that attachment anxiety was predictive of all facets of problematic Facebook use, and that attachment avoidance was predictive of impression management, and social consequences of intrusive Facebook use. Further analyses confirmed the mediating influences of psychological distress and selfesteem on these relationships. Conclusions: Users of Facebook with higher levels of attachment insecurity may be gravitating towards the site in order to fulfil their attachment needs. This tendency is likely to be particularly prevalent for those .individuals with low self-esteem who are experiencing psychological distress

  • Anger in the Classroom-taliem-ir

    Anger in the Classroom: How a Supposedly Negative Emotion Can Enhance Learning

    تومان

    There are times when teaching, despite how rewarding it can be, is an extraordinarily frustrating experience. It can be time-consuming and diffcult to do well, and even the best students do not always appreciate the hard work teachers put into their assignments and activities. Teachers are sometimes swamped with resource limitations that make it diffcult to achieve their learning outcomes, and even on their best days, they do not reach all the students they hope to reach. Plus, despite their best efforts, their innovative and grand plans for teaching do not always work, leaving them frustrated. As a psychologist who researches anger, I routinely come across people who feel that anger is a purely negative emotion. That, however, isn’t true. In fact, anger is usually a valuable emotional experience, as it alerts people to problems and energizes them to confront those problems (Deffenbacher 1996). In this chapter, I will draw upon my research on anger and my experiences as a college teacher of psychology to explore the reasons teachers become angry, the meaning of that anger, and how teachers can use the experience to motivate students and themselves toward better learning outcomes.

  • Archival research Expanding-taliem-ir

    Archival research: Expanding the methodological toolkit in social psychology

    تومان

    Laboratory experiments have many benefits and serve as a powerful tool for social psychology  research.However, relying too heavily on laboratory experiments leaves the entire discipline of social psychology vulnerable to the inherent limitations of laboratory research. We discuss the benefits of integrating archival research into the portfolio of tools for conducting social psychological research. Using four published examples, we discuss the benefits and limitations of conducting archival research. We also provide suggestions on how social psychological researchers can take advantage of the benefits while overcoming the weaknesses of archival research. Finally, we provide useful resources and  directions for utilizing archival data. We encourage socialpsychologists to increase the robustness of this scientific literature by supplementing laboratory experiments with archival research.

  • Art therapy improves mood-taliem-ir

    Art therapy improves mood, and reduces pain and anxiety when offered at bedside during acute hospital treatment

    تومان

    Art therapists can engage medical inpatients in the creation of art to encourage emotional and physical healing. Utilizing a chart review, the impact of art therapy sessions at the bedside with patients (N = 195) in a large urban teaching hospital was reviewed. The sample was predominantly female (n = 166) as more women than men agreed to participate in an art therapy session. As a routine part of regular clinical practice patients were asked to rate their perception of mood, anxiety, and pain using a 5-point faces scale before and after an art therapy session conducted by a registered art therapist. Multiple diagnoses were included in this chart review, making this study more representative of the variety of medical issues leading to hospitalization. Analysis of pre and post results demonstrated significant improvements in pain, mood, and anxiety levels of art therapy sessions for all patients regardless of gender, age, or diagnosis (all p < 0.001).

  • Association between mismatch-taliem-ir

    Association between mismatch negativity and voxel-based brain volume in schizophrenia

    تومان

    This study aimed to investigate the association between mismatch negativity (MMN) and volumes of several brain regions measured using a semi-automated method in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Methods: MMN in response to duration deviants and magnetic resonance imaging were acquired from 36 schizophrenia patients and 14 healthy controls. FreeSurfer was used for volumetric analysis. MMN amplitudes, brain volumes and their association were compared between schizophrenia and controls. Correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were used to examine the correlated variables of MMN. Results: MMN amplitude was significantly lower in the schizophrenia group. In schizophrenia, MMN was positively correlated with age and negatively correlated with left hippocampal and right pars opercularis volumes. The association between left hippocampal volume and MMN in schizophrenia remained significant after controlling for potential confounders. Conclusions: Smaller hippocampal volume may play a role in the abnormal manifestation of MMN in schizophrenia. Significance: The significant association between MMN and left hippocampal volume may suggest unique neurobiological contribution of hippocampus in auditory processing in schizophrenia.

  • Association between variations-taliem-ir

    Association between variations in the disrupted in schizophrenia 1 gene and schizophrenia: A meta-analysis

    تومان

    Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder. Genetic and functional studies have strongly implicated the disrupted in schizophrenia 1 gene (DISC1) as a candidate susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. Moreover, recent association studies have indicated that several DISC1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with schizophrenia. However, the association is hardly replicate in different ethnic group. Here, we performed a meta-analysis of the association between DISC1  SNPs and schizophrenia in which the samples were divided into subgroups according to ethnicity. Both rs3738401 and rs821616 showed not significantly association with schizophrenia in the Caucasian, Asian, Japanese or Han Chinese populations.

  • Association between vitamin-taliem-ir

    Association between vitamin D deficiency and depression in Nepalese population

    تومان

    Recent studies link vitamin D deficiency with depression; however evidences from the Nepalese population are scarce. The current study explored the association between vitamin D deficiency and depression among 300 adults of 18 years and above age residing in eastern Nepal. Validated Nepali version of the Beck  Depression Inventory scale (BDI-Ia) was used to determine depressive symptoms and a BDI cutoff score of ≥ 20 was considered as clinically significant depression. Sociodemographic data were collected using semi- structured questionnaire. Blood samples were collected to measure serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) and classify vitamin D status (deficient, insufficient and sufficient). We used Chi-square test to identify the association of sociodemographic variables and vitamin D status with clinically significant depression. We found a significant association of gender, geographical location of residence, marital status, religion and vitamin D status with clinically significant depression. Binary logistic regression model was used to examine the likelihood of clinically significant depression among vitamin D deficient individuals. Vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with increased odds of clinically significant depression even after adjusting for confounding variables. This finding suggests Vitamin D deficient people have increased odds of having clinically significant depression.

  • Classification of ADHD-taliem-ir

    Classification of ADHD with bi-objective optimization

    تومان

    Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common diseases in school aged  children. Inthis paper, we consider using fMRI data with classification techniques to aid the diagnosis of ADHD and propose a bi-objective ADHD classification scheme based on L1-norm support vector machine (SVM). In our classification model, two objectives, namely, the margin of separation and the empirical error are considered at the same time. Then the normal boundary intersection (NBI) method of Das and Dennis is used to solve the bi-objective optimization problem. A representative nondominated set which reflects the entire trade-off information between the two objectives is obtained. Each representative nondominated point in the set corresponds to an efficient classifier. Finally a decision maker can choose a final efficient classifier from the set according to the performance of each classifier. Our scheme avoids the trial and error process for regularization hyper-parameter selection. Experimental results show that our bi-objective optimization classification scheme for ADHD  diagnosisperforms considerably better than some traditional classification methods.

  • Communication satisfaction-taliem-ir

    Communication satisfaction and job satisfaction among critical care nurses and their impact on burnout and intention to leave: A questionnaire study

    تومان

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between communication and job satisfaction and their association with intention to leave and burnout among intensive care unit nurses. Research methodology/design: A multicentre questionnaire study. Setting/participants: Intensive care nurses (n = 303) from three Flemish hospitals. Main outcome measures: Communication satisfaction assessed by the Communication Satisfaction Questionnaire, intention to leave through the Turnover Intention Scale (from the Questionnaire for the Perception and Assessment of Labour) and burnout by the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Job satisfaction was measured by a visual analogue scale. Results: Average job satisfaction was 7.66 ± 1.34/10. Nurses were most satisfied about ‘Communication with supervisor’ (68.46%), and most dissatisfied about ‘Organisational perspectives’ (34.12%). Turnover intention was low among 49.5% (150/290) and high among 6.6%  (20/290). Three percent (9/299) of intensive care nurses were at risk for burnout. All dimensions of communication satisfaction were moderately associated with job satisfaction, intention to leave and burnout. Conclusion: This study demonstrated high levels of communication and job satisfaction in a sample of nurses in Flanders. Intention to leave and burnout prevalence were low. To a certain extent, communication satisfaction might be associated with job satisfaction, intention to leave and burnout.

  • Complementary Health Practices-taliem-ir

    Complementary Health Practices for Treating Perinatal Depression

    تومان

    Approximately 14% to 23% of women develop depression during pregnancy and up to 16.7% develop depression within 3 months postdelivery.1 Perinatal depression (PND) is underdiagnosed and few women receive treatment.2 Untreated PND is associated with functional impairment and adverse health  outcomes for mother and child,including obstetric and neonatal complications3 and a broad negative impact on child development.4 Maternal suicide is the leading cause of maternal death occurring within 1 year postpartum.5 Fortunately, safe and effective treatment options exist, including psychotherapy6 and antidepressants.7 However, an understanding of complementary health  practices (CHPs) is important, because perinatal women mayinquire about nonpharmacologic treatments. CHPs include a diverse range of practices that are developed outside of mainstream Western medicine. Most CHPs fall into two categories: natural products or mind and body practices. Natural products, including herbs, vitamins, minerals, and probiotics, are the most widely used CHP in the United States. Mind and body practices include techniques that are typically administered or taught by a practitioner. Physical activity interventions may also be conceptualized as a form of CHP. In general, women suffer from disorders, such as depression and anxiety, more often than men, for which CHPs are commonly pursued.8 Despite growing popularity of CHP, research is limited. In light of their increased use, we reviewed literature on CHPs for PND. We included specific approaches (ie, omega-3 fatty acids [O-3FA], folate, vitamin D, selenium, zinc, magnesium, B vitamins, physical activity, yoga) based on prevalence of use and availability of evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCT) in PND. In the absence of RCT evidence in PND, we included data from nonrandomized trials and studies addressing impact of these approaches on depressive symptoms within nonclinical populations.

  • Depression and metabolic-taliem-ir

    Depression and metabolic syndrome in the older population: a review of evidence

    تومان

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been shown to be associated with depression in older adults but the results are mixed. We summarized and evaluated the association between depression and MetS in people aged 60 years or over. Methods Relevant published studies from January 1997 to July 2017 were identified by searching two electronic databases: PubMed/Medline and EMBASE. Observational studies were considered. Results Twelve studies were included in the systematic review. Depression seemed to be related with MetS in the majority of the studies (10/12 = 83.3%). As far as the longitudinal studies are concerned, the onset of depression was related to MetS in 2 out of 3 studies (66.6%), while a relation between chronicity of depression and MetS was reported (1 study). Regarding cross-sectional studies, 7 out of 9 (77.7%) concluded that there was a positive association between depression and MetS. Mixed evidence was found among studies concerning the association between depression and the individual components of MetS. Four out of ten studies (40%) reported that depression was significantly associated with the waist circumference, a component of MetS.

  • Distribution of ADHD symptoms-taliem-ir

    Distribution of ADHD symptoms, and associated comorbidity, exposure to risk factors and disability: results from a general population study

    تومان

    The aim of this study was to examine whether ADHD is a dimensional trait in the adult general population. We studied whether an increased number of ADHD symptoms was associated with higher comorbidity, exposure to risk factors (childhood abuse and parental psychopathology), and disability. We ascertained whether even low numbers of ADHD symptoms were associated with an increased burden of disease. Data were used from the second wave of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2 (NEMESIS-2, N=5,303). NEMESIS-2 is a nationally representative face-toface survey on mental health of the Dutch general population. ADHD symptoms, mental comorbidity, and disability were assessed using the Adult ADHD Self- Report Scale Screener, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0, and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Health Survey, respectively. Dose-response relationships were found between the number of ADHD symptoms and Axis I and II mental disorders; exposure to risk factors; and mental and physical disability. Our study supports the notion that ADHD is a dimensional trait in the adult general population. Even low numbers of symptoms were associated with an increased burden of disease, and therefore these should be identified and treated.

  • Emotional Intelligence-taliem-ir

    Emotional Intelligence and Day-To-Day Emotion Regulation Processes: Examining Motives for Social Sharing

    تومان

    There is growing interest in the emotion regulation processes that underlie the adaptive functioning of  emotionally intelligent individuals. This study uses experience sampling to examine whether the emotional intelligence (EI) of undergraduate students (N = 84) relates to their day-to-day use of five emotion regulation processes over a five-day period. We also test whether EI predicts motives for one of the emotion regulation processes (social sharing). We measure both ability EI (the brief Situational Test of Emotion Management) and self-rated EI (the Self-Rated Emotional Intelligence Scale). Self-rated EI significantly predicts more social sharing, direct situation modification and reappraisal. Ability EI does not significantly predict any of the five regulation processes. Both ability and self-rated EI are significantly related to greater bonding and relief  motives for social sharing. Self-rated EI is also related to recovery motives. These results suggest that it is the self-beliefs about one’s emotional abilities, rather than emotion knowledge, which influence the emotion regulation processes people use in daily life.

  • Exercise as a treatment-taliem-ir

    Exercise as a treatment modality for depression: A narrative review

    تومان

    Depression is a major health burden associated with poor quality of life and impaired functioning. Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide and is associated with profound economic costs. Depression is usually treated with antidepressant medications and psychological therapy or combination of both. However, there are lot of limitations associated with these therapies and as a result, a number of alternative or adjunctive therapies have been sought for. Exercise is one such option with a lot of substantial supportive research. The objective of the article was to review the beneficial effects of exercise in depression. An electronic search of literature from inception till 06/2017 highlighting the effects of exercise on depression and the possible mechanistic pathways involved was conducted using PubMed/ Medline, Google scholar and Scopus and relevant articles were utilized for this review. The results of this review confirmed the beneficial role of exercise in depression as evidenced by the improvement in the outcomes and the various psychobiological parameters measured. Thus exercise can be considered as a treatment option for the management of depression.