• A novel QoS-enabled load-taliem-ir

    A novel QoS-enabled load scheduling algorithm based on reinforcement learning in software-defned energy internet

    تومان

    Recently, smart grid and Energy Internet (EI) are proposed to solve energy crisis and global warming, where improved communication mechanisms are important. Softwaredefined networking (SDN) has been used in smart grid for realtime monitoring and communicating, which requires steady web-environment with no packet loss and less time delay. With the explosion of network scales, the idea of  multiple controllers has been proposed, where the problem of load scheduling needs to be solved. However, some traditional load scheduling algorithms have inferior robustness under the complicated environments in smart grid, and inferior time efficiency without pre-strategy, which are hard to meet the requirement of smart grid. Therefore, we present a novel controller mind (CM) framework to implement automatic management among multiple controllers. Specially, in order to solve the problem of complexity and pre-strategy in the system, we propose a novel Quality of Service (QoS) enabled load scheduling algorithm based on reinforcement learning in this paper. Simulation results show the effectiveness of our proposed scheme in the aspects of load variation and time efficiency.

  • A review of approaches to uncertainty assessmen-taliem-ir

    A review of approaches to uncertainty assessment in energy system optimization models

    تومان

    Energy system optimization models (ESOMs) have been used extensively in providing insights to decision makers on issues related to climate and energy policy. However, there is a concern that the uncertainties inherent in the model structures and input parameters are at best underplayed and at worst ignored. Compared to other types of energy models, ESOMs tend to use scenarios to handle uncertainties or treat them as a marginal issue. Without adequately addressing uncertainties, the model insights may be limited, lack robustness, and may mislead decision makers. This paper provides an in-depth review of systematic techniques that address uncertainties for ESOMs. We have identified four prevailing uncertainty approaches that have been applied to ESOM type models: Monte Carlo analysis, stochastic programming, robust optimization, and modelling to generate alternatives. For each method, we review the principles, techniques, and how they are utilized to improve the robustness of the model results to  provide extra policy insights. In the end, we provide a critical appraisal on the use of these methods.

     

  • An ANP-SWOT approach-taliem-ir

    An ANP-SWOT approach for ESCOs industry strategies in Chinese building sectors

    تومان

    China consumes more energy and emits more carbon dioxide than any other country. The building sector accounts for nearly 1/3 of the total national energy consumption in China; thus, it is critical to find a solution for improving buildingsenergy efficiency. Under the market-oriented mechanism, constrained by the energy performance contracting (EPC) mode, energy service companies (ESCOs) play an important role in improving energy efficiency for high-energy-consumption industries, including the building sector. The aim of this study is to determine the strategy for boosting the building ESCO industry. By conducting a strength, weakness, opportunity, and threat (SWOT) analysis, this paper presented the status of the building ESCO industry in China and proposed alternative strategies. By utilizing a conventional multi-criteria decision-making method, namely, the Analytic Network Process (ANP), this study provides a quantitative basis to analytically determine the ranking of the factors in  SWOT analysis and select the best strategy to promote the development of the building ESCO industry.  The results showed that the ANP-SWOT is a viable and highly capable methodology that provides  nvaluable insights for strategic management decisions in the building ESCO industry, and a set of strategies for promoting ESCO development in the building sector were proposed based on this approach.

     

  • Coordinated control-taliem-ir

    Coordinated control for voltage regulation of distribution network voltage regulation by distributed energy storage systems

    تومان

    With more and more distributed photovoltaic (PV) plants access to the distribution system, whose structure is changing and becoming an active network. The traditional methods of voltage regulation may hardly adapt to this new situation. To address this problem, this paper presents a coordinated control method of distributed energy storage systems (DESSs) for voltage regulation in a distribution network. The influence of the voltage caused by the PV plant is analyzed in a simple distribution feeder at first. The voltage regulation areas corresponding to DESSs are divided by calculating and comparing the voltage sensitivity matrix. Then, a coordinated voltage control strategy is proposed for the DESSs. Finally, the simulation results of the IEEE 33-bus radial distribution network verify the effectiveness of the proposed coordinated control method.

  • Experimental study on seismic performance-taliem-ir

    Experimental study on seismic performance of post-fire reinforced concrete frames

    تومان

    To investigate the post-fire seismic behaviour of reinforced concrete (RC) frames with different column-to-beam bending capacity ratios, four specimens were fabricated, which included a strong-beam-weak-column frame and a strong-column-weak-beam frame either under room temperature or after being exposed to fire. The fire test was conducted in a furnace chamber, followed by quasi-static tests under a low-frequency cyclic load. The crack patterns, hysteretic loops, plastic hinges, and failure modes were investigated in the loading process. The influence of two factors, i.e., the fire exposure and the column-to-beam bending capacity ratio, on the mechanical performance, ductility, stiffness degradation, and energy dissipation was compared and analysed. The experimental results indicated that the ultimate bearing capacity, the stiffness, the ductility factor, and the energy dissipation capacity of the RC frames decreased after fire exposure. The bearing capacity of the strong-beamweak-column frame decreased even more seriously. Although the yielding displacements of the post-fire frames increased, their ultimate displacements decreased. In addition, the strong-column-weak-beam frame under room temperature failed in the form of beam-end plastic hinging, while after being exposed to fire, the failure mode changed to shear-bond failure in column.

     

  • Optimization on TEEN routing-taliem-ir

    Optimization on TEEN routing protocol in cognitive wireless sensor network

    تومان

    In order to improve the energy efficiency of cognitive wireless sensor network, this paper introduces threshold-sensitive energy efficient sensor network (TEEN) routing protocol into cognitive wireless sensor network. To make routing and spectrum more stable, this paper presents advanced threshold-sensitive energy efficient sensor network (A-TEEN), which is the optimization of TEEN. A-TEEN optimized the cluster head election method compared with TEEN. Simulation result shows that compared with low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy, TEEN increases the energy efficiency and extends life cycle of cognitive wireless sensor network. A-TEEN improves the energy efficiency and lifetime further operating in the same settings compared with the regular TEEN.

     

  • Urban wind energy Some-taliem-ir

    Urban wind energy: Some views on potential and challenges

    تومان

    Urban wind energy consists of the utilization of wind energy technology in applications to the urban and suburban built environment. The paper provides some views on the progress made recently in the areas of wind resource assessment in the urban habitat; the utilization of suitable wind turbines for enhancing the exploitation of these resources; and the significant role of knowledge of building and urban aerodynamics for an optimal arrangement of interfacing augmented wind with its extraction mechanisms. The paper is not intended to be exhaustive, rather its purpose is to provide some views on the above-mentioned topics from the viewpoint of wind engineering and industrial aerodynamics in the context of buildings and cities.

     

  • A physical supply-use table-taliem-ir

    A physical supply-use table framework for energy analysis on the energy conversion chain

    تومان

    In response to the oil crises of the 1970s, energy accounting experienced a revolution and became the  much broader field of energy analysis, in part by expanding along the energy conversion chain from primary and final energy to useful energy and energy services, which satisfy human needs. After evolution and specialization, the field of energy analysis today addresses topics along the entire energy conversion chain, including energy conversion systems, energy resources, carbon emissions, and the role of energy services in promoting human well-being and development. And the expanded field would benefit from a common analysis framework that provides data structure uniformity and methodological consistency. Building upon recent advances in related fields, we propose a physical supply-use table energy analysis framework consisting of four matrices from which the input-output structure of an energy conversion chain can be determined and the effects of changes in final demand can be estimated. Real-world examples demonstrate the physical supply-use table framework via investigation of energy analysis questions for a United Kingdom energy conversion chain. The physical supply use table framework has two key methodological advances over the building blocks that precede it, namely extending a common energy analysis framework through to energy services and application of physical supply-use tables to both energy and exergy analysis. The methodological advances enable the following first-time contributions to the literature: (1) performing energy and exergy analyses on an energy conversion chain using physical supply-use table matrices comprised of disaggregated products in physical units when the last stage is any of final energy, useful energy, or energy services; (2) performing structural path analysis on an energy conversion chain; and (3) developing and utilizing a matrix approach to inhomogeneous units. The framework spans the entire energy conversion chain and is suitable for many sub-fields of energy analysis, including net energy analysis, societal energy analysis, human needs and well-being, and structural path analysis, all of which are explored in this paper.

  • A survey of artificial neural-taliem-ir

    A survey of artificial neural network in wind energy systems

    تومان

    Wind energy has become one of the most important forms of renewable energy. Wind energy conversion systems are more sophisticated and new approaches are required based on advance analytics. This paper presents an exhaustive review of artificial neural networks used in wind energy systems, identifying the methods most employed for different applications and demonstrating that Artificial Neural Networks can be an alternative to conventional methods in many cases. More than 85% of the 190 references employed in this paper have been published in the last 5 years. The methods are classified and analysed into four groups according to the application: forecasting and predictions; design optimization; fault detection and diagnosis; and optimal control. A statistical analysis of the current state and future trends in this field is carried out. An analysis of each application group about the strengths and weaknesses of each ANN structure is carried out. A quantitative analysis of the main references is carried out showing new statistical results of the current state and future trends of the topic. The paper describes the main challenges and technological gaps concerning the application of ANN to wind turbines, according to the literature review. An overall table is provided to summarize the most important references according to the application groups and case studies.

  • Carbon electrodes-taliem-ir

    Carbon electrodes for capacitive technologies

    تومان

    An overview of capacitive technologies based on carbon materials (energy storage in electrical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), capacitive deionization (CDI), energy harvesting, capacitive actuation, and potential  controlled chromatography) is presented. The review reveals the role of carbon for these scientific and industrial purposes with disclosing the benefits and limitations of various nanostructured carbons for a certain application. A special attention is placed on the electrical double-layer (EDL) formation mechanisms affected by the porous texture of carbon and the electrode architecture. The importance of a careful selection of the electrolytic solution for the EDL formation inside the intraparticle pores of carbon electrodes is also enlightened.

  • Carbon electrodes -taliem-ir

    Carbon electrodes for capacitive technologies

    تومان

    An overview of capacitive technologies based on carbon materials (energy storage in electrical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), capacitive deionization (CDI), energy harvesting, capacitive actuation, and potential controlled chromatography) is presented. The review reveals the role of carbon for these scientific and industrial purposes with disclosing the benefits and limitations of various nanostructured carbons for a certain application. A special attention is placed on the electrical double-layer (EDL) formation mechanisms affected by the porous texture of carbon and the electrode architecture. The importance of a careful selection of the electrolytic solution for the EDL formation inside the intraparticle pores of carbon electrodes is also  enlightened.

  • Carrier extraction based-taliem-ir

    Carrier extraction based synchronization scheme for distributed DC–DC converters in DC-Microgrid

    تومان

    In this paper, a novel PWM carrier synchronization method is proposed for distributed DC–DC converters in DC-Microgrids. The synchronization method is based on carrier frequency extraction from DC-bus voltage ripple. In addition, an advanced phase shift control algorithm for the synchronized carriers is implemented to reduce the DC bus voltage ripple contents. A DC-Microgrid encompassing different distributed energy resources with their DC–DC converters is modeled using Matlab\Simulink to test the proposed  synchronization method and control algorithm. Then, a small power scale experimental testbed is built in order to validate the simulation results. The simulation and the experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method and algorithm are very promising to minimize DC-bus ripple contents in DC-Microgrid applications.

  • Carrier extraction based-taliem-ir

    Carrier extraction based synchronization scheme for distributed DC–DC converters in DC-Microgrid

    تومان

    In this paper, a novel PWM carrier synchronization method is proposed for distributed DC–DC  onverters in DC-Microgrids. The synchronization method is based on carrier frequency extraction from DC-bus voltage ripple. In addition, an advanced phase shift control algorithm for the synchronized carriers is implemented to reduce the DC bus voltage ripple contents. A DC-Microgrid encompassing different distributed energy resources with their DC–DC converters is modeled using Matlab\Simulink to test the proposed synchronization method and control algorithm. Then, a small power scale experimental testbed is built in order to validate the simulation results. The simulation and the experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method and algorithm are very promising to minimize DC-bus ripple contents in DC-Microgrid applications.

  • Carrier extraction based-taliem-ir (2)

    Carrier extraction based synchronization scheme for distributed DC–DC converters in DC-Microgrid

    تومان

    In this paper, a novel PWM carrier synchronization method is proposed for distributed DC–DC onverters in DC-Microgrids. The synchronization method is based on carrier frequency extraction from DC-bus voltage ripple. In addition, an advanced phase shift control algorithm for the synchronized carriers is implemented to reduce the DC bus voltage ripple contents. A DC-Microgrid encompassing different distributed energy resources with their DC–DC converters is modeled using Matlab\Simulink to test the proposed synchronization method and control algorithm. Then, a small power scale experimental testbed is built in order to validate the simulation results. The simulation and the experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method and algorithm are very promising to minimize DC-bus ripple contents in DC-Microgrid applications.

  • Co-UWSN Cooperative Energy-Efficient Protocol for[taliem.ir]

    Co-UWSN: Cooperative Energy-Efficient Protocol for Underwater WSNs

    تومان

    Sensor networks feature low-cost sensor devices with wireless network capability, limited transmit power, resource constraints, and limited battery energy. Cooperative routing exploits the broadcast nature of wireless medium and transmits cooperatively using nearby sensor nodes as relays. It is a promising technique that utilizes cooperative communication to improve the communication quality of single-antenna sensor nodes. In this paper, we propose a cooperative transmission scheme for underwater sensor networks (UWSNs) to enhance the network performance. Cooperative diversity has been introduced to combat fading. Cooperative UWSN (Co-UWSN) is proposed, which is a reliable, energy-efficient, and high throughput routing protocol for UWSN. Destination and potential relays are selected that utilize distance and signal-to-noise ratio computation of the channel conditions as cost functions. This contributes to sufficient decrease in path losses occurring in the links and transferring of data with much reduced path loss. Simulation results show that Co-UWSN protocol performs better in terms of end-to-end delay, energy consumption, and network lifetime. Selected protocols for comparison are energy-efficient depth-based routing  (EEDBR), improved adaptive mobility of courier nodes in threshold-optimized depth-based routing (iAMCTD), cooperative routing protocol for UWSN, and cooperative partner node selection criteria for cooperative routing Coop (Re and dth).