• Mass spectrometry-based metabolomics-taliem-ir

    Mass spectrometry-based metabolomics for tuberculosis meningitis

    تومان

    Tuberculosis meningitis (TBM) is a prevalent form of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis that causes substantial morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of TBM is difficult because of the limited sensitivity of existing laboratory techniques. A metabolomics approach can be used to investigate the sets of metabolites of both bacteria and host, and has been used to clarify the mechanisms underlying disease development, and identify metabolic changes, leadings to improved methods for diagnosis, treatment, and prognostication. Mass spectrometry (MS) is a major analysis platform used in metabolomics, and MS-based metabolomics provides wide metabolite coverage, because of its high sensitivity, and is useful for the investigation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and related diseases. It has been used to investigate TBM diagnosis; however, the processes involved in the MS-based metabolomics approach are complex and flexible, and often consist of several steps, and small changes in the methods used can have a huge impact on the final results. Here, the process of MS-based metabolomics is summarized and its applications in Mtb and Mtb-related diseases discussed. Moreover, the current status of TBM metabolomics is described.

     

  • Emergency Clinical..[taliem.ir]

    Emergency Clinical Diagnosis

    تومان

    The demands on emergency departments are rising worldwide. Simultaneously, the scope of practice of emergency medicine continues to expand. This is fuelled by an ageing population, complex medical  presentations, rising patient expectations, diffculties with access to primary care facilities, and the desire for second opinions in the case of diagnostic delay or failure in primary care settings. Diagnostic failure is the leading source of clinical complaints and of medico-legal litigation involving emergency departments. The emergency practitioner not only needs to be profcient in the evaluation of common highstakes conditions, but also has to be aware of malignant disease and rarer conditions that can present to the emergency department and facilitate their diagnosis and subsequent management. This ensures more effective communication with specialists receiving referrals. In particular, the new diagnosis of cancer is increasingly being made in the emergency setting. Once the correct diagnosis is made, it is recognised that treatment protocols and referral pathways can vary widely and that local guidance is more appropriate. Diagnostic accuracy, however, remains a universal common concern. This book aims to provide the emergency practitioner with diagnostic aide-memoires and checklists as part of the front-line diagnostic armamentarium.

  • Evidence-Based.Physical.Diagnosis.4e.[taliem.ir]

    Evidence-Based Physical Diagnosis

    تومان

    The purpose of this book is to explore the origins, pathophysiology, and diagnostic accuracy of many of the physical signs currently used in adult patients. We have a wonderfully rich tradition of physical diagnosis, and my hope is that this book will help to square this tradition, now almost two centuries old, with the realities of modern diagnosis, which often rely more on technologic tests, such as clinical imaging and laboratory testing. The tension between physical diagnosis and technologic tests has never been greater. Having taught physical diagnosis for 20 years, I frequently observe medical students purchasing textbooks of physical diagnosis during their preclinical years, to study and master traditional physical signs, but then neglecting or even discarding this knowledge during their clinical years, after observing that modern diagnosis often takes place at a distance from the bedside. One can hardly fault a student who, caring for a patient with pneumonia, does not talk seriously about crackles and diminished breath sounds when all of his teachers are focused on the subtleties of the patient’s chest radiograph. Disregard for physical diagnosis also pervades our residency programs, most of which have formal x-ray rounds, pathology rounds, microbiology rounds, and clinical conferences addressing the nuances of laboratory tests. Very few have formal physical diagnosis rounds.

  • Imaging.and.Diagnosis.in.Pediatric.[taliem.ir]

    Imaging and Diagnosis in Pediatric Brain Tumor Studies

    تومان

    Pediatric brain tumors, especially embryonal and other high-grade tumor types, have the propensity to disseminate along the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pathway ,while spread outside the central nervous system (CNS) at diagnosis is very rare. The management of pediatric brain tumors has evolved over the last three decades as a result of prospective multicentric clinical trials. Multimodal treatment including surgical resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy has led to improved outcomes in many entities. However, treatment- related toxicity often has a major impact on long-term quality of survival. In order to reduce sequelae, the concept of stratification into risk groups according to clinical variables (e.g., age, presence of metastases detected by imaging or cytological evaluation of CSF, and postoperative residual tumor status) has been developed in the last decades, adjusting the intensity of therapy to the risk of relapse. While the principal treatment strategies have not significantly changed over the past few years, enormous progress has been made in understanding of tumor biology, which has led and most likely will continue to lead to further refinements of risk stratification and to the development of novel therapy approaches using targeted drugs in a personalized way.

  • Implant.Aesthetics.Keys.to.Diagnosis.[taliem.ir]

    Implant Aesthetics

    تومان

    Esthetic outcomes are of central importance to most patients. To ensure that patients’ expectations are aligned with expected outcomes, a systematic risk assessment is required. Communication of the risk factors and expected outcomes is important to ensure the patient has realistic expectations. Risk reduction for implant therapy begins with collection of diagnostic information and sharing a comprehensive esthetic diagnosis with the patient. Esthetic risks for dental implants are often associated with the tissues that surround the implant, specifically the lack of interproximal tissue fill and the recession of buccal tissues following implant restoration. Diagnostic information regarding connective tissue attachment levels at  adjacent teeth can clarify the risk for incomplete interproximal tissue fill, and steps to overcome buccal tissue recession include both augmentation procedures and proper dental implant placement. The establishment of ideal tooth contours for the implant crown is easily achieved when the proper volume of the supporting bone and soft tissue is provided. Integrating an ideal implantsupported restoration into a beautiful smile requires a comprehensive esthetic diagnosis, a broad approach to implant site development, and careful execution of the planned implant therapy.

  • Integration of Asset Management and Smart Grid[taliem.ir]

    Integration of Asset Management and Smart Grid with Intelligent Grid Management System

    تومان

    Electric power transmission and distribution (T and D) systems are composed of a great deal of aged apparatus, which may cause a decrease in reliability owing to their deterioration. In order to maintain high efficiency and high quality in T and D systems, the authors have proposed an “intelligent grid management system” (IGMS), which determines the optimum maintenance strategy and optimum power flow control based on condition monitoring and diagnostic results of the operating power apparatus. This means that the IGMS essentially includes both concepts of an asset management system and a smart grid. Further, the IGMS optimizes power flow routes and maintenance plans based on the failure risk, T and D loss, overload  operation, life estimation of the power apparatus, customer outage, and other metrics. The impact of  individual apparatus failure affects the entire T and D system’s performance, causing blackouts and  secondary failures. Reduction in reliability of whole system is highly dependent on ageing of the materials. The IGMS evaluates all of the events occurring in the T & D system as the cost. Additionally, the risks are  evaluated in the cost according to the impact of the failure rate estimated by the condition monitoring  diagnosis results of the power apparatus. Insulation system determines the transition in reliability and maintenance cost of the system. In this paper, the IGMS is applied to T and D system models including aged apparatus, such as transformers and circuit breakers, and suitable power flow routes and maintenance  strategies are derived. Consequently, by the effective application of the IGMS, the system reliability can achieve an optimum state, and the total cost can be minimized.

  • Integration of Asset Management and Smart Grid[taliem.ir]

    Integration of Asset Management and Smart Grid with Intelligent Grid Management System

    تومان

    Electric power transmission and distribution (T and D) systems are composed of a great deal of aged  apparatus, which may cause a decrease in reliability owing to their deterioration. In order to maintain high efficiency and high quality in T and D systems, the authors have proposed an “intelligent grid management system” (IGMS), which determines the optimum maintenance strategy and optimum power flow control based on condition monitoring and diagnostic results of the operating power apparatus. This means that the IGMS essentially includes both concepts of an asset management system and a smart grid. Further, the IGMS optimizes power flow routes and maintenance plans based on the failure risk, T and D loss, overload  operation, life estimation of the power apparatus, customer outage, and other metrics. The impact of individual apparatus failure affects the entire T and D system’s performance, causing blackouts and  secondary failures. Reduction in reliability of whole system is highly dependent on ageing of the materials. The IGMS evaluates all of the events occurring in the T & D system as the cost. Additionally, the risks are  evaluated in the cost according to the impact of the failure rate estimated by the condition monitoring  diagnosis results of the power apparatus. Insulation system determines the transition in reliability and maintenance cost of the system. In this paper, the IGMS is applied to T and D system models including aged apparatus, such as transformers and circuit breakers, and suitable power flow routes and maintenance  strategies are derived. Consequently, by the effective application of the IGMS, the system reliability can achieve an optimum state, and the total cost can be minimized.

  • Neuroblastoma.Current.State.and.Recent.Updates.[taliem.ir]

    Neuroblastoma: The Clinical Aspects

    تومان

    Neuroblastoma is a predominantly pediatric cancer, arising from the primordial neural crest cells that form the sympathetic nervous system. The prognosis for patients with neuroblastoma can vary from uniform survival in low risk patients to fatality in patients with high risk disease. This chapter gives a brief overview of the epidemiology, genetics, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and discussion of the various staging systems and risk classifcations of neuroblastoma. We also briefly describe our understanding of the conventional and novel treatment modalities available and their effects on the current prognosis of patients with neuroblastoma. The purpose of this chapter is to serve as a brief overview of the clinical aspects of neuroblastoma, to serve as a foundation of knowledge for scientists aspiring to develop new therapeutic modalities for this dreadful  pediatric disease.