• Smart Cities and Mobility-taliem-ir

    Smart Cities and Mobility: Does the Smartness of Australian Cities Lead to Sustainable Commuting Patterns?


    Smart cities have become a popular concept because they have the potential to create a sustainable and livable urban future. Smart mobility forms an integral part of the smart city agenda. This paper investigates “smart mobility” from the angle of sustainable commuting practices in the context of smart  cities. This paper studies a multivariate multiple regression model within a panel data framework and examines whether increasing access to broadband Internet connections leads to the choice of a sustainable commuting mode in Australian local government areas. In this case, access to the Internet is used as a proxy for determining urban smartness, and the use of different modes of transport including working at home is used to investigate sustainability in commuting behavior. The findings show that an increasing access to broadband Internet reduces the level of working from home, public transport use, and active transport use, but increases the use of private vehicles, perhaps to overcome the fragmentation of work activities the Internet creates. How to overcome the need for car-based travel for fragmented work activities while increasing smartness through the provisioning of broadband access should be a key smart city agenda for Australia to make its cities more sustainable.

  • The role of universities-taliem-ir

    The role of universities in the knowledge management of smart city projects


    The development of smart cities is becoming more and more based on knowledge management (KM) frameworks. This leads to new managerial challenges, which reflect the complexity of KM governance and processes issues of smart city projects as well as the need to manage knowledge that originates both within and beyond projects’ boundaries. However, in-depth research on the development of smart cities from a managerial and KM perspective has remained scant. In detail, although universities are deemed to be responsible for the competitiveness and superiority of knowledge-based ecosystems, like smart city projects, the different roles they play in such projects when dealing with KM governance and  processes issues are still understudied. Therefore, by conducting an exploratory case study of 20 smart city projects, this paper aims to scrutinize how universities manage the KM governance issue when internal knowledge is used, the KM governance issue when external knowledge is used, the KM processes issue when internal knowledge is used, and the KM processes issue when external knowledge is used. Results reveal that universities act as knowledge intermediaries, knowledge gatekeepers, knowledge providers, and knowledge evaluators.

  • The total amount of words-taliem-ir

    The total amount of words is 5935. Smart community evaluation for sustainable development using a combined analytical framework


    Current attempts for sustainable-focused smart community evaluation have failed to make significant advancements, and quantitative analysis for sustainable development is still a major challenge in China. In recent years, smart community evaluation (SCE) for sustainable development has attracted considerable attentions. Government decision-makers can make it easier to stimulate household sustainable consumption by conducting SCE. This paper develops a combined analytical framework that will assist in the process of multi-source data integration and uncertain reasoning of SCE. This  ramework is used to combine quantitative metrics and subjective judgment with evidential reasoning approach, and this frarmework can also take decision makers’ risk preferences into consideration using prospect theory. Four urban communities are evaluated by the proposed framework to demonstrate its applicability and effectiveness.

  • Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences.[taliem.ir]

    Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences


    Operons (clusters of co-regulated genes with related functions) are common features of bacterial genomes. More recently, functional gene clustering has been reported in eukaryotes, from yeasts to filamentous fungi,
    plants, and animals. Gene clusters can consist of paralogous genes that have most likely arisen by gene duplication. However, there are now many examples of eukaryotic gene clusters that contain functionally related but non-homologous genes and that represent functional gene organizations with operon-like  features (physical clustering and co-regulation). These include gene clusters for use of different carbon and nitrogen sources in yeasts, for production of antibiotics, toxins, and virulence determinants in filamentous fungi, for production of defense compounds in plants, and for innate and adaptive immunity in animals (the major histocompatibility locus). The aim of this article is to review features of functional gene clusters in prokaryotes and eukaryotes and the significance of clustering for effective function.

  • Dermal.Drug.Selection.and.Development.An.Industrial.[taliem.ir]

    Dermal Drug Selection and Development


    In this chapter, the manner a new drug is discovered and selected as well as the costs, challenges and risks around the selection of a candidate molecule are discussed. As candidate quality impacts attrition in later  phases of development this concept is developed as well. The aim is to frame the key aspects of drug  candidate selection in general to place into context the challenges that a drug discovery team would face for the selection of a dermal drug candidate. Finally, specifc risks and opportunities for selecting such a dermal drug candidate are presented.

  • Design and development of logistics workflow systems for demand[taliem.ir]

    Design and development of logistics workflow systems for demand management with RFID


    This paper discusses demand and supply chain management and examines how artificial intelligence techniques and RFID technology can enhance the responsiveness of the logistics workflow. This proposed system is expected to have a significant impact on the performance of logistics networks by virtue of its capabilities to adapt unexpected supply and demand changes in the volatile marketplace with the unique feature of responsiveness with the advanced technology, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID). Recent studies have found that RFID and artificial intelligence techniques drive the development of total solution in logistics industry. Apart from tracking the movement of the goods, RFID is able to play an important role to reflect the inventory level of various distribution areas. In today’s globalized industrial environment, the physical logistics operations and the associated flow of information are the essential elements for companies to realize an efficient logistics workflow scenario. Basically, a flexible logistics workflow, which is characterized by its fast responsiveness in dealing with customer requirements through the integration of various value chain activities, is fundamental to leverage business performance of enterprises. The significance of this research is the demonstration of the synergy of using a combination of advanced technologies to form an integrated system that helps achieve lean and agile logistics workflow .

  • Development.of.In.Vitro.Maturation.for.[taliem.ir]

    Development of In Vitro Maturation for Human Oocytes


    The following factors are involved in the ovarian cycle (i.e., follicular development, ovulation, and corpus luteum formation) and the regulation of menstruation as a result of luteal regression. All these factors are so- called classical hormonesthat are secreted by specific cells or organs. These factors affect target organs via the bloodstream and constitute the core of the feedback mechanism of the diencephalon (hypothalamus)pituitaryovaryuterus system. A. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH); B. Gonadotropins: follicle- stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH); C. Steroid hormones: estrogen, androgens, progesterone, glucocorticoids, and mineralocorticoids; and D. Glycoproteins: inhibin, activin, follistatin, and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH). In this chapter, particularly important aspects of hormones AD are selected and described.  The menstrual cycle is controlled via regulation of GnRH, which is synthesized by the hypothalamus. GnRH, a polypeptide composed of 10 amino acids (Glu-His-Trp-Ser-Tyr-Gly-Leu-ArgPro-Gly- NH2), is a hormone that is secreted by the hypothalamus and that has an extremely short half-life (23 min). The GnRH-1 gene (GNRH1) is located on human chromosome 8 (8p11.2-p21) and produces a 92-amino acid precursor peptide called prepro-GnRH, which includes a signal sequence (23 amino acids), GnRH (10 amino acids), a proteolytic processing site (3 amino acids), and GnRH-associated peptide (56 amino acids).

  • Development of Oral[taliem.ir]

    Development of Oral Cancer


    Oral cancer is a major health burden particularly in the developing world where most of the cases are diagnosed . More than 300,000 new patients are estimated to be diagnosed with oral and oropharyngeal cancer in 2012, and 50% of these cases will die annually . The WHO International Statistical Classifcation of Diseases (ICD-10) defned oral and oropharyngeal cancer as the malignancy emerging from the anatomic sites that correspond to the rubrics C00–C10 of the ICD-10 . Specifcally, the involved oral anatomic subsites include the lips, buccal mucosa, alveolar ridge and gingiva, retromolar trigone, anterior two-thirds of the tongue (anterior to the circumvallate papillae), floor of the mouth and hard palate. The oropharynx (middle part of the pharynx) consists of the soft palate, base (or posterior one-third) of the tongue, palatine tonsils, palatoglossal folds, valleculae and posterior pharyngeal wall. Traditionally oral cancer was sometimes used to designate head and neck cancer that genuinely covers wider anatomical region with more heterogeneous nature. Though, for the purpose of this chapter, lip/mouth and oropharyngeal cancers have been combined and termed as oral and oropharyngeal cancer (OPC). Also, the cases originated from either nasopharynx or other pharynxes were excluded to distinguish it from the head and neck cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of malignancy that is diagnosed in the oral and oropharyngeal region with more than 95%.

  • Factors predisposing to the development of multiple sclerosis[taliem.ir]

    Factors predisposing to the development of multiple sclerosis


    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disease, which is known to be more common in UK than many countries. While there are  multiple genetic factors affecting risk of developing MS and disease severity within the condition, evidence on the rising worldwide prevalence and the increasing female to male preponderance has focused interest on environmental factors influencing MS risk. Data on several of these factors are reviewed, with particular focus on those such as vitamin intake, smoking and obesity, which may be influenced at a personal and population level by medical advice. When patients ask what has caused their illness, they are usually referring to the aetiology rather than the pathological basis. For example, people with multiple sclerosis (MS) asking about the cause of their condition are not interested so much in T-cell abnormalities and other immune dysfunction as knowing some of the factors that may have predisposed them to develop this autoimmune condition. The aim of this article is to review the data on MS risk factors, with particular emphasis on those which may be  modifiable through medical advice at a personal and population level.

  • Handbook.of.Life.Course.Health.Development.[ta;iem.ir]

    Handbook of Life Course Health Development


    Over the past several decades, countless studies have linked early life events and experiences with adult health conditions, delineating the developmental origins of common chronic health conditions and specifying the processes by which both adversity and opportunity are integrated into developing biobehavioral systems (Baltes et al .2006; Bronfenbrenner 2005; Elder et al. 2015). As a result, there is a greater understanding of how health and disease develop, which is leading to new kinds of individual- and population-level strategies that have the potential to prevent disease and optimize health by minimizing the impact of adversity, increasing protective factors, and targeting health-promoting interventions to coincide with sensitive periods of health development. Insights and evidence from life course chronic disease epidemiology have converged with research from the felds of developmental biology, neuroscience, and developmental science, with studies of typical and atypical development and with new fndings from research examining the developmental origins of chronic disease. This wide-ranging research, all focused on understanding how health and disease develop, has involved researchers from a wide variety of disciplines. Life-span developmental psychologists,  life course-focused sociologists, human capitalfocused economists, and political scientists studying the structure of social institutions are not only studying the same developmental processes; they are also working  alongside epidemiologists, physicians, and basic scientists to better understand how health develops over the life course and how these health development processes promote human flourishing.

  • Information systems and sustainable supply chain management[taliem.ir]

    Information systems and sustainable supply chain management towards a more sustainable society: Where we are and where we are going


    The objectives of this study are to identify and systematize scholarly articles on the use of information system to support sustainable supply chain management and to suggest future research opportunities. Therefore, a structured literature review was conducted. The most relevant studies identified were classified and categorized into seven dimensions: research context, research focus, research method, sectoranalyzed, information system (IS) beneficiaries, relationship between IS and green supply chain practices, and performance benefits. The main authors and articles on this particular topic were identified. In addition, it was concluded that IS is an important support tool for sustainable supply chain management practices since it brings benefits to the organization, suppliers, and customers. Furthermore, IS positively influences the operational, financial, and environmental performance of the organization. However, further advances in the literature are still needed. The major contribution of this research is related to the recommendations that provide opportunities for future research.

  • liBeralization, migration, and development[taliem.ir]

    liBeralization, migration, and development: the mexico-u S relationShip


    Migration from Mexico to the United States has been increased by liberalization of the Mexican economy.  Proponents of liberalization had maintained that it would reduce migration; indeed, they used this argument along with anti-immigrant sentiment as one basis on which to sell the North American Free Trade Agreement to the U.S. public. The anti-immigration demagogy was not only offensive in sentiment but also wrong in  substance. Various impacts of liberalization have been causal factors moving people northward and  maintaining the high rate of migration. This reality should force a reassessment of policy in the United States. A policy that accepted the reality of continuing migration and integrated the immigrants into the labor force with full rights could have widespread benefts.

  • Nanoparticles for Targeting-taliem-ir

    Nanoparticles for Targeting and Multi-Stimuli responsive Nano Drug Delivery application


    Various polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) with optimal size, tumor-targeting functionalization, or microenvironment sensitive characteristics have been designed to solve several limitations of conventional chemotherapy. Nano-sized polymeric drug carrier systems have remarkably great advantages in drug  delivery and cancer therapy, which are still plagued with severe deficiencies, especially insufficient cellular uptake. Therapeutic nanoparticle (NP) technologies have the potential to revolutionize the drug development process and change the landscape of the pharmaceutical industry . By virtue of their unique physicochemical properties, nanoparticles have shown promise in delivering a range of molecules to desired sites in the body.Nanoparticle technologies may improve the therapeutic index of drugs by enhancing their efficacy and/or increasing their tolerability in the body. Nanoparticles could also improve the bioavailability of water- insoluble drugs, carry large payloads,protect the therapeutic agents from physiological barriers, as well as enable the development of novel classes of bioactive macromolecules (e.g., DNA and siRNA).Additionally, the incorporation of imaging contrast agents within nanoparticles can allow us to visualize the site of drug delivery or monitor the in vivo effi cacy of the therapeutic agent  . Thus far, over two-dozen nanotechnology  products have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for clinical use, and many are under clinic and preclinic development   .Interestingly, the majority of these clinically approved, fi rst- generation nanotechnology products are comprised of liposomal drugs and polymer–drug conjugates, which are relatively simple and generally lack active targeting or controlled drug release components.To develop safer and more effective therapeutic nanoparticles, researchers have designed novel multifunctional  nanoparticle platforms for cell/tissue-specifi c targeting, sustained or triggered drug delivery, co-delivery of synergistic drug combinations, etc. Among these functions, we believe that spatial and temporal controls in drug delivery may be critical for the successful development of next-generation nanotechnology products.

  • On the Research and Development[taliem.ir]

    On the Research and Development of Social Internet of Things


    The Internet of Things (IoT) has been a new trend in the IT business and the assembling group for quite a  while. Yet, in this way, the battle with IoT is that it is attempting to locate an extraordinary advertising  message about how it will specifically enhance human lives. It has been stated that the ones who are tied in a social network can give significantly give more exact responses to complicated issues than an individual alone. This rule has been seriously considered in different websites. Lately, with the help of IoT frameworks, it was made possible to connect billions of objects in a very short term. The Social Internet of Things (SIoT) is characterized as an IoT where things are fit for building social associations with different items, independently regarding people. In this chapter we propose to discuss on the origin, development and current status of SIoT and propose some scope for future studies.

  • Sustainable electricity-taliem-ir

    Sustainable electricity generation mix for Iran: A fuzzy analytic network process approach


    Electricity supply in Iran has been heavily dependent on fossil fuels. In light of the government’s emphasis on reducing the consumption of conventional energy sources, combined with the worldwide attention to environmental issues, it is necessary for Iran to revise its current energy mix policy in power sector and move towards a more diversified energy portfolio. This paper aims to contribute to energy anagement studies through developing a new framework for assessing the mix of energy sources for producing electricity in Iran from the perspective of sustainable development. Multiple ualitative and quantitative criteria with conflicting nature need to be taken into consideration for evaluating competing energy options for electricity production in Iran. In order to address this issue and also to consider the complex interdependence among criteria and alternatives, this paper adopts a fuzzy analytic network process (FANP) method. Seven criteria and nineteen subcriteria are defined and structured in the form of benefits, opportunities, costs and risks (BOCR) to evaluate the share of six energy resources. The results indicate that the best energy mix for the power sector in Iran is as follows: renewable energies (31.6%), natural gas (25%), coal (12.3%), fuel oil (12.6%), nuclear (8.7%) and gas oil (9.7%).