Oocytes from stem cells0 تومان
Folliculogenesis describes the process of activating an oocyte-containing primordial follicle from the ovarian reserve, and its development to the mature ovulatory stage. This process is highly complex and is controlled by extra- and intra-ovarian signalling events. Oocyte competence and capacity for fertilisation to support a viable pregnancy is acquired during folliculogenesis. Cancer, and cancer-based therapies can negatively affect this process, compromising fertility. Currently, preservation of fertility in these patients remains limited to surrogacy, oocyte freezing, oocyte donation or in vitro maturation (IVM). Recent reports of stem cells being used to produce fully competent oocytes, and subsequently healthy offspring in mice, has opened up a novel avenue for fertility preservation. However, translating these findings into human health first relies on enhancing our understanding of follicle growth, and mimicking its intricacies in vitro. Indeed, the future of oocytes from stem cells in humans comes with many possibilities, but currently faces several technical and ethical obstacles.
Adipocytokines, Energy Balance, and Cancer0 تومان
Obesity is now a well-established promoter of cancer progression and decreased overall patient survival. Ever since the association between obesity and cancer was appreciated, adipose tissue, adipocytes, and secreted fat-derived factors have been a focus of the mechanism underlying this link. Adipose-secreted factors cytokines are referred to as adipocytokines and represent the group of molecules thought to link adipose or fat cells to initiation and promotion of various cancers. There are over 20 identified adipokines, of which, a subset has been implicated in cancer. In this chapter, we will provide a concise review of the current literature on the subset of adipose-derived factors linked to cancer.
Art therapy improves mood, and reduces pain and anxiety when offered at bedside during acute hospital treatment0 تومان
Art therapists can engage medical inpatients in the creation of art to encourage emotional and physical healing. Utilizing a chart review, the impact of art therapy sessions at the bedside with patients (N = 195) in a large urban teaching hospital was reviewed. The sample was predominantly female (n = 166) as more women than men agreed to participate in an art therapy session. As a routine part of regular clinical practice patients were asked to rate their perception of mood, anxiety, and pain using a 5-point faces scale before and after an art therapy session conducted by a registered art therapist. Multiple diagnoses were included in this chart review, making this study more representative of the variety of medical issues leading to hospitalization. Analysis of pre and post results demonstrated significant improvements in pain, mood, and anxiety levels of art therapy sessions for all patients regardless of gender, age, or diagnosis (all p < 0.001).
Cancer and Chemoprevention: An Overview0 تومان
Cancer is a cluster of diseases which involves variation in the status and activation of multiple genes that impart an advantage to survive and unexhausting proliferative potential to somatic or germinal cells (Cho 2007). The three main classes of genes altered primarily are proto-oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, and DNA repair genes. Together they contribute to the growth of cancer phenotype and genotype to defend against the natural and inherent death mechanisms ingrained in cells as apoptosis and like processes, associated with deregulation of cell proliferation events. Apart from this, there is also an escalating evidence to recommend that cancer is also driven by epigenetic changes like DNA methylation and transformed patterns of histone modifcations resulting in variation in chromatin condensation status, hence regulating activation of certain set of specifc genes (Ediriwickrema and Saltzman 2015; Bayli and Ohm 2006). Most cancers are named according to their origin of sites in which they begin like cancer that originates in the renal proximal cells is called renal cell carcinoma and renal pelvis carcinoma is the cancer that originates in the center of the kidney where urine collects. Wilms tumor usually develops in children under the age of 5 (Bhatt et al. 2010).
Current and Emerging Therapies in Pancreatic Cancer0 تومان
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths worldwide. It is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in both men and women in the United States and has <10% 5-year overall survival rate for all stages . Worldwide, PC is the eighth leading cause of cancer death in men (about 138,100 deaths annually) and the ninth in women (about 127,900 deaths annually). In general it affects more individuals residing in the Western and industrialized parts of the world with the highest incidence reported in New Zealand, Black American and Hawaiians and the lowest incidence reported among people living in Nigeria and India . Based on data obtained from the surveillance epidemiology and end results (SEER) database, the incidence and death rate of PC is 12.4 and 10.9 per 100,000 men and women per year, respectively. In the United States, an estimated 53,070 people will be diagnosed with PC in the year 2016, and 41,780 people will die secondary to it . PC occurs less commonly before age 45, but its incidence rises sharply thereafter with more than half of the patients over 70 years at diagnosis. As the average lifespan is expected to increase in the future, it is likely that PC would become more prevalent. Over 85% of exocrine PCs are adenocarcinomas with other variants making up the rest . Majority of PCs are idiopathic in nature with exception of few cases where an actual risk factor could be identifed. Some of the nonfamilial risk factors that have been identifed which may contribute to the development of PC include smoking, alcohol, diabetes, impaired glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, obesity, infections, coffee and non-blood group ‘O’. Age is considered one of the most common risk factors with an obvious dramatic increase in incidence of PC as one gets older. Racial factor may play a role in development and outcome of PC.
Development of Oral Cancer0 تومان
Oral cancer is a major health burden particularly in the developing world where most of the cases are diagnosed . More than 300,000 new patients are estimated to be diagnosed with oral and oropharyngeal cancer in 2012, and 50% of these cases will die annually . The WHO International Statistical Classifcation of Diseases (ICD-10) defned oral and oropharyngeal cancer as the malignancy emerging from the anatomic sites that correspond to the rubrics C00–C10 of the ICD-10 . Specifcally, the involved oral anatomic subsites include the lips, buccal mucosa, alveolar ridge and gingiva, retromolar trigone, anterior two-thirds of the tongue (anterior to the circumvallate papillae), ﬂoor of the mouth and hard palate. The oropharynx (middle part of the pharynx) consists of the soft palate, base (or posterior one-third) of the tongue, palatine tonsils, palatoglossal folds, valleculae and posterior pharyngeal wall. Traditionally oral cancer was sometimes used to designate head and neck cancer that genuinely covers wider anatomical region with more heterogeneous nature. Though, for the purpose of this chapter, lip/mouth and oropharyngeal cancers have been combined and termed as oral and oropharyngeal cancer (OPC). Also, the cases originated from either nasopharynx or other pharynxes were excluded to distinguish it from the head and neck cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of malignancy that is diagnosed in the oral and oropharyngeal region with more than 95%.
Early Phase Cancer Immunotherapy0 تومان
While connoting both the social as well as biological consequences of an entity that has plagued mankind for millennia, this sentiment recognizes the central role of the immune system in wound healing, or, in this context, tumor elimination. The critical role that the immune system plays in tumor regression, and therapeutic strategies harnessing the host immune response against tumor, have been recognized since the advent of Coley’s toxin over a century ago—based on observations that patients with severe postoperative skin infections after their sarcoma surgery would spontaneously achieve cancer remission. Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine has shown durable effcacy in localized bladder cancer with reported responses in etastatic cancers as well. Decades of innovation in medical science would be required to further refne cancer immunotherapy for clinical use.
Fabrication of an Electrochemical Biosensor for early detection of Colorectal cancer based on miRNA hybridyzation method0 تومان
For the detection of DNA hybridization, a new electrochemical biosensor was developed on the basis of the interaction of Doxirubicine (DOX) with 22-mer oligonucleotides (from human Colorectal cancer) a simple biosensing design to yield an ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor for cancer biomarker detection on Screen Printed Gold Electrodes (SPGE) without use of any modification on electrode surface perhaps direct detection with the help of electroactive label (DOX) and MicroRNA92a (miRNA) as an biomarker selected for being up-regulated in Colorectal cancer. The biosensor was assembled in two stages the immobilization of the probe that was modified on an SPGE and second stage of target hybridization of completely match strand electroactive label DOX has been used after hybridization process which is an intercalator with our miRNA strands as an redox indicator for amplifying the electrochemical signal of miRNA 92a. For conformation electrochemical techniques including Cyclic Voltammetery (CV) and Differential Pulse Voltammetery (DPV). were used and hybridization was observed successfully .The final biosensor provided a sensitive detection of miRNA 92a with good selectivity.
Immunotherapy for Gastrointestinal Cancer0 تومان
More than a century ago, the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine (1908) was awarded jointly to Ilya Mechnikov and Paul Ehrlich “in recognition of their work on immunity” and it was around this time that Ehrlich expounded his hypothesis that the immune system may play a role in the control of tumours . However his suggestion was actually preceded by work carried out by a young New York bone surgeon, William Coley (1862–1936) who had read about a patient who underwent dramatic regression of a neck tumour after developing erysipelas, a skin infection caused by streptococcus pyogenes. Coley subsequently observed that his own patients who developed post-operative infection after surgery seemed to gain some improvement in outcome with respect to their underlying sarcomatous tumours. He believed that these infections may have stimulated the immune system in a way that rendered it more capable of recognising and attacking the cancer. He developed Coley’s toxin comprising killed bacteria, provided by Robert Koch, and he injected this into his patients, reporting a complete regression rate in inoperable sarcomas of approximately 10% . Although the use of Coley’s toxin declined rapidly in the 1950s with the ﬂourishing of cytotoxic drugs and radiotherapy, there are still clinics today that use a variation of this agent comprising Streptococcus pyogenes and Serratia marcescens.
Liquid Biopsy in Cancer Patients0 تومان
In recent years the treatment of cancer patients has profoundly changed, thanks to the study and the comprehension of the biological processes underlying tumor development and progression. Almost 20 year ago was first used the term “oncogene addiction ” to describe the phenomenon where the activation of a specific oncogene is required for cancer cell survival and proliferation . It was then supposed that a pharmacological agent, able to specifically target the hyperactivated oncogene , was efficient to selectively kill cancer cells sparing normal cells from toxicity. This is no longer a dream, but it has become part of clinical real life for oncologists and their patients. Since then clinicians have changed the way to treat and select patients for a specific treatment, moving from one-size-fits-all strategy to the so-called precision medicine that is based on a correct patient’s selection. Patient’s selection is based on a series of molecular biology procedures able to define a specific molecular profile for the tumors. Therefore, until now, the path of cancer patients’ survival is tissue dependent (Fig. 1.1). The identification of a specific gene status in a precise tumor type (e.g., c-KIT for gastrointestinal stromal tumors or EGFR in non-small cell lung cancer) enables the selection of the patient for a targeted therapy . If considered the abovementioned examples, for those patients in which the molecular analysis does not provide any information (wild-type patients), the strategy is the standard treatment indicated for their disease. Moreover, we are now witnessing another revolution brought from immunotherapy, but that’s another story beyond the scope of this volume .
Male Breast Cancer0 تومان
There is substantial evidence of deleterious health behaviour in males both in terms of high-risk activities and avoidance of contact with doctors. This manifests as delay in diagnosis and upstaging of disease with a consequent worsening of prognosis. The incidence of male breast cancer is rising worldwide and this is not just as a result of increasing lifespan in that age standardised rates are also increasing. Neonatal breast tissue demonstrates plasticity irrespective of gender. Normal male breast anatomy is similar to that of prepubertal females but is often overshadowed by the presence of gynaecomastia, particularly in the overweight. The lack of model systems including established human MBC cell lines has hindered research but with collaborative studies there is promise of better understanding and treatment for MBC in the future.
Minimally Invasive Surgery for Upper Abdominal Cancer
The postoperative advantages of the Minimally Invasive Surgical (MIS) approach in comparison with Open approach in Upper Gastrointestinal Oncology concern: (1) The stress and immune responses, (2) the surgical intervention, (3) the postoperative short-term effects and morbidity, (4) the postoperative Quality of Life and (5) the oncological consequences. All surgical traumas are followed by unanticipated side effects such as pain and infection. A theory regarding the onset of these side effects pertains to the surgical stress response entailing subsequently increased demands on the patient’s reserves and immune status. The demand on organ functions is increased following surgery and it is thought to be mediated by traumainduced endocrine and metabolic changes. To circumvent this problem and reduce surgical trauma, the frst minimally invasive colectomy was described by Jacobs et al. in 1991 . Since, many studies have shown the clinical short-term benefts for laparoscopic colectomy over open procedures without compromising oncological outcomes. HLA-DR expression on monocytes is correlated to the competence of a patient’s specifc immune response. C-reactive protein levels are associated with postoperative infectious complications. Interleukin-6 levels are associated with postoperative complications rates and are a predictor of morbidity following surgical intervention.
Patient-Derived Xenograft Models of Human Cancer0 تومان
Given the extensive history of cancer, the history of patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models is also diffcult to fully recapitulate. In particular, this task is complicated by the irregularity with which PDX models were designated. The current use of “PDX cancer models” is a relatively recent addition to the lexicon. However, the general concept of PDX models—i.e., the transplantation of human cancers into animal models—can be found throughout the chronicles of cancer research. However, it wasn’t until the discovery of host immunity and its crucial role in graft survival that the idea of serial transplantation could be realized. Therefore, in order to better reﬂect the nature of its history, the term “human tumor models” will be used in place of “PDX models,” except when appropriate. Finally, it is important to also mention the existence of the other labels that have been used, including, but not limited to, “human tumor xenografts,” “xenopatients,” heterotransplant tumor models,” “heterotransplanted human tumors,” and “transplantable tumor models.”
Taking Charge of Cancer0 تومان
Today’s cancer patients are better informed than ever before. Manypatients come to their doctor equipped with a stack of literature and a good understanding of their diagnosis and treatment. But a crucial component is missing. Most patients have no idea that the quality of their treatment is a key factor that can influence their survival. Making matters worse is the fact that even if patients were aware of this issue, they don’t have the tools to evaluate whether their team is providing top-notch care. When a patient receives recommendations from her doctor, it is very difficult to know if those recommendations are good ones. In many instances, she may never know if her doctor has made a critical mistake. Delivering cancer treatment to patients is very complex. Treating cancer is not like following a simple recipe, where mixing the same ingredients in any kitchen gives the same results. Cancer care for a single patient requires decisions from numerous professionals to dispense treatments that are potentially life-saving, but also potentially dangerous and life-threatening. The chances of cure and survival for any given patient depend on the expertise of the cancer team and whether procedures are in place to ensure that cancer care is delivered properly.
The D-Type Cyclins: A Historical Perspective0 تومان
D-type cyclins integrate mitogen-dependent signals to enforce progression through the frst gap phase (G1) of the cell division cycle. In simplest terms, three mammalian D-type cyclins (D1, D2, and D3), induced in a cell lineage-specifc fashion in response to extracellular signals, interact with two cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK4 and CDK6) to form holoenzyme complexes that phosphorylate the retinoblastoma protein (RB). In turn, RB phosphorylation, reinforced by other CDKs expressed later in G1 phase, inactivates the suppressive effects of RB on transcription factors that induce genes required for DNA replication. All steps in the life history of individual D-type cyclins, including their transcriptional induction, translation, assembly with CDK4 and CDK6, and their rapid turnover via ubiquitinmediated proteolysis, are governed by mitogen signaling. Hence, progression through the G1 phase of the mammalian cell cycle is tied to extracellular signals that ultimately inﬂuence cell division. Analysis of phenotypes of mice lacking D cyclins has highlighted their individual and combinatorial lineage-specifc activities during mammalian development. The genes encoding D-type cyclins and their dependent kinases, CDK4 and CDK6, are proto-oncogenes implicated in many forms of cancer. Genetic or biochemical disruption of cyclin D-dependent CDK signaling can restrain cancer development and progression. Here, we highlight the founding discoveries.
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