A CASE STUDY ON GREEN INFORMATION SYSTEM0 تومان
The textile industry plays an important role in creating Taiwan’s foreign exchange income. The vast majority of textile enterprises are traditional, labor-intensive small- edium enterprises. Over the recent years, with the increasing consciousness of people’s environmental protection around the world and the pressure of competition on the international markets, many textile ompanies are forced to pay close attention to the environmental protection. In view of this trend, the textile industry hopes the implementation of a green information system help to investigate the extent of business process improvement after implementing the system and key factors for success with an aim to effectively reduce cost, expand business opportunities, and march toward globalization. In this study, a case study approach is adopted to conduct an on-site survey on one enterprise in the upstream, mid-stream and downstream supply hains respectively. The business management cost is increased at the very beginning of the green supply chain introduction. However, the business process is improved after the mplementation of Internet interface. The green supply chain brings external effects: the romotion of corporate image, an increase of customer value and loyalty, reduction of customer complaints, and product conformity to global standards. It also generates internal effects: enhanced supply chain integration (for instance, increased information availability, process efficiency and supply chain partnership), the increase of sales revenue, procurement efficiency, and competitiveness.
A review of approaches for the long-term management of municipal solid waste landfills0 تومان
After closure, municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills must be managed and controlled to avoid dverse effects on human health and the environment (HHE). Aftercare (or post-closure care) can be brought to an end when the authorities consider the landfill to no longer pose a threat to HHE. Different approaches have been suggested for long-term landfill management and evaluation of aftercare completion. In this paper, research on aftercare and its completion is analyzed and regulatory approaches for the completion of landfill aftercare are reviewed. Approaches to ftercare could be categorized as (i) target values, (ii) impact/risk assessment, and (iii) erformance based. Comparison of these approaches illustrates that each has limitations and strengths. While target values are typically used as screening indicators to be complemented with site-specific ssessments, impact/risk assessment approaches address the core issue about aftercare ompletion, but face large uncertainties and require a high level of expertise. A performance-based approach allows for the combination of target values and impact/risk assessments in a consistent evaluation framework with the aim of sequentially reducing aftercare intensity and, ultimately, leading to the completion of aftercare. At a regulatory level, simple qualitative criteria are typically used as the primary basis for defining completion of aftercare, most likely due to the complexity of
developing rigorous evaluation methodologies. This paper argues that development of transparent and consistent regulatory procedures represents the basis for defining the desired state of a landfill at the end of aftercare and for reducing uncertainty about the intensity and duration of aftercare. In this context, recently presented technical guidelines and the ongoing debate with respect to their regulatory acceptance are a valuable step towards developing strategies for the cost-effective protection of HHE at closed MSW landfills.
Climate Change, Human Impacts, and the Resilience of Coral Reefs0 تومان
The diversity, frequency, and scale of human impacts on coral reefs are increasing to the extent that reefs are threatened globally. Projected increases in carbon dioxide and temperature over the next 50 years exceed the conditions under which coral reefs have flourished over the past half-million years. However, reefs will change rather than disappear entirely, with some species already showing far greater tolerance to climate change and coral bleaching than others. International integration of management strategies that support reef resilience need to be vigorously implemented, and complemented by strong policy decisions to reduce the rate of global warming.
Cost Efficiency of Low Impact Development (LID) Stormwater Management Practices0 تومان
Stormwater management has focused increasingly on Low Impact Development (LID) techniques in recent years. Although their effectiveness has been demonstrated in a number of cases, methodologies for the selection of most appropriate solutions for individual sites are still evolving. The cost efficiency of implementing a wide range of LID techniques in a proposed land development in the City of London, Ontario, Canada was investigated using continuous hydrologic simulation and a recently developed LID costing tool. The results indicate that infiltration trench and infiltration trench in combination with green roof were the most cost efficient solutions for runoff reduction.
Evaluating the influence of physical, economic and managerial factors on sheet erosion in rangelands of SW Spain by performing a sensitivity analysis on an integrated dynamic model0 تومان
An integrated dynamic model was used to evaluate the influence of climatic, soil, pastoral, economic and managerial factors on sheet erosion in rangelands of SW Spain (dehesas). This was achieved by means of a variancebased sensitivity analysis. Topsoil erodibility, climate change and a combined factor related to soil water storage capacity and the pasture production function were the factors which influenced water erosion the most. Of them, climate change is the main source of uncertainty, though in this study it caused a reduction in the mean and the variance of long-term erosion rates. The economic and managerial factors showed scant influence on soil erosion, meaning that it is unlikely to find such influence in the study area for the time being. This is because the low profitability of the livestock business maintains stocking rates at low levels. However, the potential impact of livestock, through which economic and managerial factors affect soil erosion, proved to be greater in absolute value than the impact of climate change. Therefore, if changes in some economic or managerial factors led to higher stocking rates in the future, significant increases in erosion rates would be expected.
Evaluation of catalytic converter aging for vehicle operation with ethanol0 تومان
As the automotive catalytic converter must perform its function independent of the fuel used in flexible fuel vehicles, this paper aims to analyze how operation with ethanol influence catalytic converter performance. To conduct the study, three catalytic converters were aged in a vehicle operating on a chassis dynamometer by 30,000 km. During aging of the first catalytic converter the vehicle was fueled with gasoline containing 22% v/v of anhydrous ethanol, while the second and third catalytic converters were aged using hydrous ethanol (4.9% v/v of water) as fuel, but with different operating temperatures of the catalytic converters. Different tests were performed for each catalytic converter: determination of the degradation factor, surface area analysis by the Brunauer Emmett Teller method (BET), evaluation of oxygen storage capacity (OSC), and determination of conversion efficiency using synthetic gas. The results revealed that the operating temperature is the primary parameter to influence catalytic converter aging.
Greenhouse gas emission accounting for EU member states from 1991 to 20120 تومان
Collectively, the EU is among the world’s largest greenhouse gas (GHG) emitters, though remarkable decreases in GHG emissions have been observed in recent years. In this work the GHG emissions for the 28 EU member states between 1991 and 2012 are accounted for and compared according to the inventory method of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The structure of GHG emissions at a national level, their distribution between countries, and trends across the period are then analyzed. National emission sources and sinks are decomposed for each country to elucidate the contribution of each sector (energy, industrial processes, solvents and other product use, agriculture, land use/landuse change and forestry, and waste) to the national totals. Germany was the largest emitter, with net emissions totaling 939 Tg CO2 equivalent in 2012, 60% more than the UK and 89% more than France, the second and third biggest emitters, respectively. The energy sector and agriculture were found to be the largest sources of emissions in most countries. Four quadrants were established to compare countries’ performance in emission intensity, carbon removal rate, and net reduction rate of GHG emissions. Slovenia, Portugal, Sweden, and Finland were located in Quadrant II as they displayed relatively low emission intensities and high carbon removal rates. Conversely, Hungary, Greece, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, and Poland were located in Quadrant IV because of their relatively high emission intensities and low carbon removal rates. Some suggestions for integrating the annual results and the trends both within and among countries into national and regional emissions reduction strategies are also included. The unified accounting framework and analysis of the structure of GHG emissions may also be useful for other countries and regions.
Hospital waste management in El-Beheira Governorate, Egypt0 تومان
This study investigated the hospital waste management practices used by eight randomly selected hospitals located in Damanhour City of El-Beheira Governorate and determined the total daily generation rate of their wastes. Physico-chemical characteristics of hospital wastes were determined according to standard methods. A survey was conducted using a questionnaire to collect information about the practices related to waste segregation, collection procedures, the type of temporary storage containers, on-site transport and central storage area, treatment of wastes, off-site transport, and final disposal options. This study indicated that the quantity of medical waste generated by these hospitals was 1.249 tons/day. Almost two-thirds was waste similar to domestic waste. The remainder (38.9%) was considered to be hazardous waste. The survey results showed that segregation of all wastes was not conducted according to consistent rules and standards where some quantity of medical waste was disposed of with domestic wastes. The most frequently used treatment method for solid medical waste was incineration which is not accepted at the current time due to the risks associated with it. Only one of the hospitals was equipped with an incinerator which is devoid of any air pollution control system. Autoclaving was also used in only one of the selected hospitals. As for the liquid medical waste, the survey results indicated that nearly all of the surveyed hospitals were discharging it in the municipal sewerage system without any treatment. It was concluded that the inadequacies in the current hospital waste management practices in Damanhour City were mainly related to ineffective segregation at the source, inappropriate collection methods, unsafe storage of waste, insufficient financial and human resources for proper management, and poor control of waste disposal. The other issues that need to be considered are a lack of appropriate protective equipment and lack of training and clear lines of responsibilities between the departments involved in hospital waste management. Effective medical waste management programs are multisectoral and require cooperation between all levels of implementation, from national and local overnments to hospital staff and private businesses.
Management and recycling of waste glass in concrete products: Current situations in Hong Kong0 تومان
Disposal of more than 300 tonnes waste glass daily derived from post-consumer beverage bottles is one of the major environmental challenges for Hong Kong, and this challenge continues to escalate as limited recycling channels can be identified and the capacity of valuable landfill space is going to be saturated at an alarming rate. For this reason, in the past ten years, a major research effort has been carried out at The Hong Kong Polytechnic University to find practical ways to recycle waste glass for the production of different concrete products such as concrete blocks, self-compacting concrete and architectural mortar. Some of these specialty glass-concrete products have been successfully commercialized and are gaining wider acceptance. This paper gives an overview of the current management and recycling situation of waste glass and the experience of using recycled waste glass in concrete products in Hong Kong.
Mechanical and Thermal Properties of the Plasticized PVC-ESBO0 تومان
The thermal and mechanical properties of plasticized PVC with epoxidized soya bean oil(PVC-ESBO) are studied. The repulsive interactions are used to explain the effect of epoxidization on the modulus of PVC with ESBO and plasticizer. The glass transition temperature of PVC is a linear function of the epoxidization of ESBO plasticizer. The activation energies of stabilized PVC/ESBO is also influenced by dehydrorochlorination reaction and HCl evolution. Addition of ESBO improves thermal behaviour of PVC. The higher activation energies of Ca-Zn, Ba-Zn stabilizers are responsible for the stability of PVC-ESBO. The epoxidization level of ESBO also improves the mechanical properties and thermal stability of PVC.
Nanowastes and the environment: Potential new waste management paradigm0 تومان
Recent exponential growth in the development of nanomaterials (NMs) and nanoproducts is premised on the provision of novel benefits to the society—through the exploitation of their unique industrial and biomedical applications like medical imaging, fabrics in textiles, tissue engineering, nanocomposites, bioremediation, and biomedicine. These NMs and nanoproducts have increased in quantity and volume from few kilograms to thousands of tonnes over the last fifteen to twenty years, and their uncontrolled release into the environment is anticipated to grow dramatically in future. However, their potential impacts to the biological systems are unknown. Among the key present challenges in the waste management sector include the emergence of nanowastes; however, the effectiveness and the capability of the current systems to handle them are yet to be established. Because of limited studies on nanowastes management, in this paper, threefold objectives are pursued, namely; (i) to raise concerns related to the alarming increases of uncontrolled releases of NMs into the environment through nanowastes, (ii) examine the unique challenges nanowastes pose to the waste management systems—both from technological and legislative perspectives, and (iii) summarize results of the first nanowastes classification formalism in order to elucidate the potential challenges of waste streams containing nanoscale dimension materials to the present waste management paradigm. Finally, the article closes by summarizing several proactive steps of enhancing effective long-term and responsible management of nanowastes
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