Development of prebiotic food products and health benefts0 تومان
In the current context from the nutritional and epidemiological point of view, it can be seen an occurrence increase of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases, as well as the inﬂammatory ones, ordinarily associated to a wrong feed, poor in fbers and rich in fats and simple and refned carbohydrates. Tis view has evidenced a progressive increase of diseases, highlighting the importance of colonic microbiota as an active mechanism of infectious processes control and modulation of immunologic answer. Terefore, constant the worries related to recovering and maintenance of healthy intestines, stocked with prebiotic nutrients that support the survival of benefcial health agents. Tis way, researchers and the segment of food industry has encouraged the development of products with prebiotic properties, looking for the health promotion, treatment and diseases prevention, besides the strengthening on the competitive market. Tis article will embrace the contents about physiologic eﬀects of the main known prebiotic, their potential in relation to fermentatives bacterias, new developed products and used methodologies to the recognition of pre and probiotic functions.
Effect of physical form of forage on performance, feeding behavior, and digestibility of Holstein calves0 تومان
The physical form of forage may influence rumen development and, consequently, the body weight gain, dry matter (DM) consumption, digestibility, and welfare of dairy calves. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of 2 different physical forms of forage on performance, apparent digestibility, and feeding behavior of young calves. Twenty Holstein male calves (46.8 ± 1.2 kg) were randomly assigned at birth to 1 of 2 feeding treatments in which they were exposed to a mixed ration containing (on a DM basis) 90% crumb starter concentrate and either (1) 10% coarsely chopped (3 to 4 cm) grass hay (CRS; n = 10) or (2) 10% finely ground (2 mm) grass hay (FN; n = 10). All calves were offered 8 L/d of milk replacer (MR; 1.2 kg of DM) from birth; the amount of MR was progressively reduced after 5 wk to enable weaning by the end of wk 7. The study finished after wk 8. Consumption of the mixed ration, MR, and water was recorded daily, and calves were weighed twice weekly. Samples of feed and orts were taken in wk 7 and 8 for nutrient content analysis. Behavioral data for each calf were obtained for 2 h/d during wk 6 and 8, for a total observation time per animal of 28 h. Total feces were collected during wk 8 to determine apparent digestibility. Calves fed CRS had greater DM intake than those fed FN (2.70 vs. 2.45 ± 0.11 kg/d, respectively) during the week after weaning (wk 8). Body weight gain was similar between treatments; however, calves fed CRS tended to have a greater gain-to-feed ratio than calves fed FN (0.68 vs. 0.63 ± 0.02 kg of gain/kg of DM intake). No differences were observed in crude protein and acid detergent fiber consumption between treatments; however, calves fed CRS tended to consume more neutral detergent fiber than calves fed FN during the last week of the study (719.2 vs. 610.5 ± 25.84 g/d).
Formation of carcinogenic 4(5)-methylimidazole in caramel model systems: A role of sulphite0 تومان
Aqueous caramel model systems consisted the D-glucose/NH3/sulphite were heated at 100 C for 2 h and amounts of carcinogenic 4(5)-methylimidazole (4-MI) formed were determined. The amount formed ranged from 7.0 to 155.0 ppm. A system with 0.1 M sulphite yielded the greatest amount of 4-MI, which was 54% more than that yielded from a system without sulphite. When the amount of sulphite increased over 0.1 M, the amount of 4-MI reduced. The greatest reduction was achieved with 0.2 M sulphite by 68% compared to 0 M sulphite, suggesting that sulphite plays an important role in the formation of carcinogenic 4-MI in caramel colour. Also, a system with 0.1 M sulphite yielded the most intense caramel colour but the other levels of sulphite did not change the colour intensity significantly. Sulphite contributed slightly to the level of flavour chemicals evaluated using pyrazine formation. The results suggest that sulphite addition at appropriate amount reduces 4-MI formation in caramel colour without sacrificing flavour and colour formation.
Optimization of processing parameters of a ball mill refiner for chocolate0 تومان
The aim of this work was to optimize the ball mill based refining process of chocolate, in terms of refining time and energy consumption. Experiments were planned following a central composite design (CCD), considering refining time (rt) and agitator shaft speed (as) as factors. The experimental variables measured were chosen from the main characteristics that describe unmoulded chocolate. A complete second-order model was fitted to the experimental data. The most significant coefficients were that of energy consumption, iron content and particle size. Optimization consists in a bound minimization of refining time using the desirability function. Before experiments, working conditions were 70 rpm for as and 55 min for rt. The optimum conditions calculated by optimization were as follows: 58 rpm for as and 38.5 min for rt. The new working conditions identified for the ball mill considered enabled to rise output from 109 kg/h to 156 kg/h, with a 43% increase in productivity. A control experiment carried out in the optimized conditions to corroborate the results obtained, confirmed calculated expectations of response variables.
Optimizing chocolate production through traceability: A review of the influence of farming practices on cocoa bean quality0 تومان
Due to recent developments in traceability systems, it is now possible to exchange significant amounts of data through food supply chains. Farming practices applied by cocoa farmers at the beginning of the chocolate supply chain strongly influence several quality parameters of the finished chocolate. However, information regarding these practices does not normally reach the chocolate manufacturer. As a consequence, many specifications of the raw material cannot be taken into consideration in the operational decision making processes related to chocolate production. In recent years many studies have been investigating the influence of certain farming practices on cocoa beans and the subsequent chocolate quality parameters. However, no comprehensive analysis of the process variables in the chain and their effects on the quality can be found. In this paper we review and classify the available literature on the topic in terms of process variables throughout the chain, and their effects on quality and flavour aspects of cocoa beans and the eventual chocolate product. After analyzing the literature, we are able to identify potential benefits of using data regarding the farming practices into the chocolate production process. These potential benefits especially concern product quality and production yield, giving directions for the future of chocolate production.
Perceptions of Chinese restaurants in the U.S.: What affects customer satisfaction and behavioral intentions?0 تومان
This study investigates American customers’ perceptions of Chinese restaurants in the U.S., using the Importance–Performance Analysis (IPA) approach. This study also examines which attributes of Chinese restaurants influence American customers’ satisfaction and behavioral intentions. The IPA shows that environmental cleanliness and attentive service are two important areas where Chinese restaurateurs can make improvements. In addition, food taste and service reliability appear to be key attributes for Chinese restaurants’ success. Overall, this study indicates that food quality, service reliability and environmental cleanliness are three pivotal attributes to create satisfied customers and positive postdining behavioral intentions. Chinese restaurant managers should reasonably allocate their limited resources to restaurant attributes based on their contributions to customer satisfaction and behavioral intentions.
Performance assessment of food safety management system in the pork slaughter plants of China0 تومان
The aim of this study was to investigate the status of food safety management system (FSMS) implemented at the pork slaughter plants in China, based on a detailed profile of both announced assessments carried out in 60 companies and unannounced assessments in 25 ones, with the checklist covered 29 indicators. The results from the study indicated several factors had an effect on the status of FSMS, associated with company size, location, target market, and valid certificates. The results also revealed a weakness of FSMS on good manufacture practices, including contamination control, pest control, clean and disinfection, facility environment and personal hygiene. In order to precisely measure implementation performance and better identify insufficiency, unannounced assessment was shown to be more efficient than announced assessment.
Production of low-fat yogurt with quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) scalding water0 تومان
Quince scalding water is rich in phenolic compounds and flavonoids which provide interesting antioxidant properties, and also contain organic acids and sugars. The aim of this study was to evaluate the direct use of quince scalding water for set style yogurt production. The addition of quince scalding water provided color changes and reduced yogurt sensory scores. Quince scalding water had inhibitory effect against lactic acid bacteria, probably due to its high content in polyphenols. As a consequence, quince scalding water enriched yogurts had higher pH and lower lactic acid content compared to control yogurts. Such changes are reflected in their rheological and textural properties: soft yogurts of higher deformability and lower elastic behavior and viscosity. Future research on the addition of quince scalding water to other foods, or the study of their antibacterial or antioxidant properties would be of great interest.
مقاله محاسبه و تحلیل شاخص OCE در پالایشگاه گاز پارسیان0 تومان
اثربخشی، پارامتری بسیار مهم در بخش تعمیر و نگهداری می باشد. اثربخشی تعیین کننده مسیر اجرای عملیات و یک اهرم مهم تشخیص وضعیت سازمان های مبتنی بر نگهداری و تعمیرات می باشد. اثربخشی تحت تاثیر سه پارامتر حیاتی بنام کیفیت، عملکرد و در دسترس بودن می باشد. دامنه کاربرد آن در بخش برنامه ریزی، کنترل، تولید و کیفیت می باشد. مدیران بالادستی یک سازمان همواره به دنبال کاهش ضایعات و تولید پایدار می باشند بنابراین تعیین وضعیت ساختار عملکردی امری مهمو لاینفک از مسیر تولید می باشد. در این مقاله شاخه ای مرتبط با اثربخشی کلی تجهیز بنام اثربخشی کلی نیروی کار نت در پالایشگاه گاز پارسیان مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفته است و تعیین دقیق این شاخصه می تواند علاوه بر ایجاد سطح رقابتی بین پالایشگاه های مختلف، وضعیت سازمانرا نیز می توان با استاندارد جهانی اثربخشی نیروی کارنت سنجید. نتایج این تحقیق نشان می دهد که شرکت گاز پارسیان از دو بعد کیفیت و زمان بهره برداری نیروی کار نت در وضعیت تقریبا مناسبی قرار دارد اما نسبت به عملکرد نیروی کار نت باید سطح آموزش را بالا برد و هم چنین از نظر شاخص اثربخشی کلی نیروی کار نت، امتیاز نرمال جهانی آن 65% می باشد که شرکت پالایش گاز پارسیان تقریبا در سطح نزدیک به آن (%63) قرار دارد.
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