Distribution of ADHD symptoms, and associated comorbidity, exposure to risk factors and disability: results from a general population study0 تومان
The aim of this study was to examine whether ADHD is a dimensional trait in the adult general population. We studied whether an increased number of ADHD symptoms was associated with higher comorbidity, exposure to risk factors (childhood abuse and parental psychopathology), and disability. We ascertained whether even low numbers of ADHD symptoms were associated with an increased burden of disease. Data were used from the second wave of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2 (NEMESIS-2, N=5,303). NEMESIS-2 is a nationally representative face-toface survey on mental health of the Dutch general population. ADHD symptoms, mental comorbidity, and disability were assessed using the Adult ADHD Self- Report Scale Screener, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0, and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Health Survey, respectively. Dose-response relationships were found between the number of ADHD symptoms and Axis I and II mental disorders; exposure to risk factors; and mental and physical disability. Our study supports the notion that ADHD is a dimensional trait in the adult general population. Even low numbers of symptoms were associated with an increased burden of disease, and therefore these should be identified and treated.
Does “subliminal perception” (perception without awareness) occur, and how can it be measured?0 تومان
The first documented findings suggesting an effect that has come to be called “subliminal perception” (or perception without awareness) came from Pierce and Jastrow’s (1884) work testing the human response to very similar, barely distinguishable stimuli. Pierce and Jastrow devised an experiment in which they each had to evaluate which of two pressures on skin was greater, along with a reported confidence level. The significant, and surprising, finding was that even when the subject indicated that they were guessing (zero confidence, implied 50% chance), they were actually correct about which pressure was greater more than 60% of the time. The subjects were consistently more accurate than chance, but were not aware of any difference between the two stimuli. These findings were later confirmed by other researchers, stirring interest about stimuli that were beneath the threshold of conscious awareness.
Examination of the interpersonal predictors of mentoring relational quality0 تومان
Purpose – A continued focus in organizational research has been on career development, and mentoring has been identified as a key determinant of career success. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the interpersonal dynamics which contribute to variations in the effectiveness of mentoring support behaviors. Specifically, the effects of mentoring relational quality (MRQ) (i.e. affective perceptions held by mentors and prote ´ge ´s) on mentoring behaviors (i.e. vocational and psychosocial) as well as professional identification are considered. Interpersonal skills (e.g. behavioral integrity and political skill) of mentors and prote ´ge ´s are examined for their impact on MRQ. Design/methodology/approach – Utilizing matched dyadic survey data from 100 mentor-prote ´ge ´ pairs in academe (i.e. dissertation chairs and doctoral candidates or recent doctoral alumni), partial least squares was used to test the research model. Findings – Results support MRQ as an integral component in mentoring dynamics. MRQ for mentors and prote ´ge ´s was significantly linked with mentor support behaviors provided and received, respectively. Mentors’ perceptions of MRQ were predicted by prote ´ge ´s’ behavioral integrity and mentors’ political skill. Similarly, prote ´ge ´s’ political skill and mentors’ behavioral integrity significantly predicted prote ´ge ´s’ perceptions of MRQ. Further, mentors and prote ´ge ´s reported higher levels of professional identification when MRQ was high. Originality/value – This study links affective and behavioral perspectives of mentoring, revealing the importance of interpersonal skill in career development. The interpersonal dynamics characteristic of mentor-prote ´ge ´ interactions determine the extent to which mentoring support behaviors may actually be provided by mentors and received by prote ´ge ´s.
Exercise as a treatment modality for depression: A narrative review0 تومان
Depression is a major health burden associated with poor quality of life and impaired functioning. Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide and is associated with profound economic costs. Depression is usually treated with antidepressant medications and psychological therapy or combination of both. However, there are lot of limitations associated with these therapies and as a result, a number of alternative or adjunctive therapies have been sought for. Exercise is one such option with a lot of substantial supportive research. The objective of the article was to review the beneficial effects of exercise in depression. An electronic search of literature from inception till 06/2017 highlighting the effects of exercise on depression and the possible mechanistic pathways involved was conducted using PubMed/ Medline, Google scholar and Scopus and relevant articles were utilized for this review. The results of this review confirmed the beneficial role of exercise in depression as evidenced by the improvement in the outcomes and the various psychobiological parameters measured. Thus exercise can be considered as a treatment option for the management of depression.
Exploring the role of sedentary behavior and physical activity in depression and anxiety symptom severity among patients with substance use disorders0 تومان
Research has consistently shown that regular physical activity may protect against the development and maintenance of depression and anxiety, whereas sedentary behavior may exacerbate depression and anxiety. However, much of the past research in this area has focused on non-clinical populations. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine the relations of physical activity and sedentary behavior to depression and anxiety symptom severity among an understudied patient population, patients in residential substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. This study also sought to determine the extent to which physical activity and sedentary behavior relate to depression and anxiety symptom severity above and beyond an established transdiagnostic risk factor for depression and anxiety, emotion dysregulation. A sample of 41 patients from a residential SUD treatment facility completed a variety of self-report measures focused on physical activity, sedentary behavior, emotion dysregulation, and depression and anxiety symptom severity. Physical activity, but not sedentary behavior, was found to significantly predict depression symptom severity above and beyond emotion dysregulation. Physical activity and sedentary behavior did not significantly predict anxiety symptom severity above and beyond emotion dysregulation. In addition to providing additional support for the relevance of emotion dysregulation to depression and anxiety symptom severity, results suggest that physical activity may be another factor to consider in evaluating risk for depression among patients with SUDs. Although additional research in this area is warranted, results also suggest the potential utility of targeting physical activity in reducing risk for depression among patients with SUDs.
Hidden hypotheses in ‘hypothesis-free’ genome-wide epigenetic associations0 تومان
The recent interest in epigenetics within mental health research, from a developmental perspective, stems from the potential of DNA methylation to index both exposure to adversity and vulnerability for mental health problems. Genome-wide technology has facilitated epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS), permitting ‘hypothesis-free’ examinations in relation to adversity and/or mental health problems. In EWAS, rather than focusing on a priori established candidate genes, the genome is screened for DNA methylation, thereby enabling a more comprehensive representation of variation associated with complex disease. Despite their ‘hypothesis-free’ label, however, results of EWAS are in fact conditional on several a priori hypotheses, dictated by the design of EWAS platforms as well as assumptions regarding the relevance of the biological tissue for mental health phenotypes. In this short report, we review three hidden hypotheses — and provide recommendations — that combined will be useful in designing and interpreting EWAS projects.
Homeopathy in the treatment of depression: a systematic review0 تومان
Depression is a common reason for patients to consult homeopaths. This review aims to assess the efficacy, effectiveness and safety of homeopathy in depression. Methods: Thirty databases/sources used to identify studies reporting on homeopathy in depression, published between 1982 and 2016. Studies were assessed for their risk of bias, model validity, aspect of homeopathy and comparator. Results: Eighteen studies assessing homeopathy in depression were identified. Two double-blind placebo-controlled trials of homeopathic medicinal products (HMPs) for depression were identified. The first trial (N=91) with high risk of bias found HMPs were non-inferior to fluoxetine at 4 (p=0.654) and 8 weeks (p=0.965); whereas the second trial (N=133), with low risk of bias, found HMPs was comparable to fluoxetine (p=0.082) and superior to placebo (p<0.005) at 6 weeks. The remaining research had unclear/high risk of bias. A non-placebo- ontrolled RCT found standardised treatment by homeopaths comparable to fluvoxamine; a cohort study of patients receiving treatment provided by GPs practising homeopathy reported significantly lower consumption of psychotropic drugs and improved depression; and patient-reported outcomes showed at least moderate improvement in 10 of 12 uncontrolled studies. Fourteen titles provided safety data. All adverse events were mild or moderate, and transient. No evidence suggested treatment was unsafe. Conclusions: Limited evidence from two placebo-controlled double-blinded trials suggests HMPs might be comparable to antidepressants and superior to placebo in depression, and patients treated by homeopaths report improvement in depression. Overall, the evidence gives a potentially promising risk benefit ratio. There is a need for additional high quality studies.
How can Psychology inform disaster research?0 تومان
This paper will set out our current understanding of how psychology can help us to understand and influence preparation for, and responses to disaster. Using four primary research studies, this paper will outline how psychology can inform our knowledge of all stages of a disaster (preparedness, immediate response and long-term consequences). The first study used a questionnaire design to examine factors that influence evacuation behaviours. The second and third studies explored physiological and psychological responses to simulated disaster training. The fourth study explored the consequences of trauma exposure focusing specifically on predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder and post-traumatic growth. The results show that psychology can play a role in our understanding of human behaviour during a disaster. Specifically, study one shows how psychology can inform disaster preparation by identifying barriers to evacuation. The second and third studies show how psychology can help us to explore and predict human behaviour during a disaster. Finally, the fourth study highlights how psychology can help us to understand the longer-term impactof exposure to traumatic events. Overall, the results of these studies show that psychological knowledge can predict and positively influence human behaviour in response to disasters.
How treatment improvement in ADHD and cocaine dependence are related to one another: A secondary analysis0 تومان
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is overrepresented among individuals seeking treatment for substance use disorders. We previously reported that treatment with extended release mixed amphetamine salts (MAS-XR) increased abstinence, compared to placebo, among patients with co-occurring ADHD and cocaine dependence. This secondary analysis investigates the temporal relationship between ADHD improvement and cocaineabstinence in the first six weeks of the trial. Methods: The study was a three-arm, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, 14-week trial comparing MAS-XR (60mg or 80mg daily) versus placebo among 126 participants with ADHD and cocaine dependence. An autoregressive cross-lagged structural equation model was fit and evaluated weekly ADHD improvement (defined as > 30% reduction in the Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale) and urine-confirmed abstinence over the first six weeks. Results: The proportion of patients with each of the possible overall patterns of response was: ADHD improves before cocaine abstinence: 24%; Cocaine abstinence occurs before ADHD improvement: 12%; ADHD improvement and abstinence occur during the same week: 6%; ADHD improves but abstinence never achieved: 34%; Abstinence achieved but ADHD never improves: 6%; Neither ADHD improvement nor abstinence: 18%. A significant cross-laggedassociation was found; subjects with ADHD improvement at week 2 had significantly higher odds of cocaine abstinence at week 3 (p = .014). Conclusion: When treating co-occurring ADHD and cocaine dependence with stimulant medication, abstinence is most likely preceded by improvement in ADHD, which tends to occur early with medication treatment. Other observed temporal patterns suggest the potential .complexity of the relationship between ADHD and cocaine .dependence
Impact of Interior Colors in Retail Store Atmosphere on Consumers’ Perceived Store Luxury, Emotions, and Preference0 تومان
A retail store space in luxury fashion functions as a critical marketing point communicating the brand’s intended image. This study explores the symbolic effect of aesthetic factors of retail atmosphere in luxury, focusing on the impact of perceived luxury of interior colors in retail atmosphere on perceived store luxury, consumer emotion, and preference. A total of 218 U.S. consumers participated in an online survey, employing a hypothetical store image reflecting a highor low-luxury retail atmosphere (manipulated through the interior colors). The results statistically support that (a) participants exposed to the high-luxury retail atmosphere condition (of high-luxury colors) report a higher level of perceived store luxury than do the participants exposed to the lowluxury retail atmosphere condition (of low-luxury colors), (b) perceived store luxury increases felt pleasure and arousal but not felt dominance, and (c) felt pleasure and arousal improve store preference.
Implications of turnover and trust for safety attitudes and behaviour in work teams0 تومان
Turnover potentially leads to a new individual being selected into a work team. This study investigated the safety-specific trust which team members place in their organisation’s selection and induction processes, and related this to the perceived risk from new employees. The research was conducted with teams working in forest harvesting, an occupation which has high-turnover, high risk and a high ccident rate. Results indicate that trust in induction processes was negatively correlated with perceived risk from a new employee. Team members also engaged in a number of safety ensuring behaviours when a new individual joined the team, and these were related to the level of perceived risk, and how much they cared about their team members’ safety. It is argued that trust in the safety-specific characteristics of an organisation’s selection and induction process may have negative consequences for safety.
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