Pediatric Forensic[]

Pediatric Forensic Evidence

The needs of the child are paramount. The clinician’s frst task is to diagnose the cause of symptoms and signs whether accidental, inflicted or the result of an underlying medical condition. Where abuse is diagnosed the task is to safeguard the child and treat the physical and psychological effects of maltreatment. A child is one who has not yet reached his or her 18th birthday. Child abuse is any action by another person that causes signifcant harm to a child or fails to meet a basic need. It involves acts of both commission and omission with effects on the child’s physical, developmental, and psychosocial well-being. The vast majority of carers from whatever walk of life, love, nurture and protect their children. A very few, in a momentary loss of control in an otherwise caring parent, cause much regretted injury. An even smaller number repeatedly maltreat their children in what becomes a pattern of abuse. One parent may harm, the other may fail to protect by omitting to seek help. Child abuse whether physical or psychological is unlawful.
Emergency Department...[]

Emergency Department Management of Obstetric Complications

Pregnant patients often present to the emergency department (ED) with chief complaints of abdominal pain and/or vaginal bleeding in the frst trimester .Women presenting to the ED in early pregnancy may not be aware of their pregnancy status; it is critical that emergency clinicians test for pregnancy in any woman of childbearing age with abdominal pain or vaginal bleeding. Helpful historical clues include date of last menstrual period (LMP) and, for patients who are aware they are pregnant, whether or not they have had an ultrasound with this pregnancy. Complications such as pain and bleeding in early pregnancy are common. Indeed, one fourth of women will have vaginal bleeding or spotting in the frst few weeks of pregnancy, and one half of those patients will miscarry . Ultimately these patients will receive a diagnosis of threatened miscarriage, miscarriage, pregnancy of unknown location, ectopic pregnancy, or, rarely, heterotopic pregnancy. Some complications such as ectopic pregnancy may be life threatening; others are emotionally devastating and may impact future fertility. Emergency physicians must be prepared to evaluate and manage the various complications of early pregnancy.
Emergency Clinical..[]

Emergency Clinical Diagnosis

The demands on emergency departments are rising worldwide. Simultaneously, the scope of practice of emergency medicine continues to expand. This is fuelled by an ageing population, complex medical presentations, rising patient expectations, diffculties with access to primary care facilities, and the desire for second opinions in the case of diagnostic delay or failure in primary care settings. Diagnostic failure is the leading source of clinical complaints and of medico-legal litigation involving emergency departments. The emergency practitioner not only needs to be profcient in the evaluation of common highstakes conditions, but also has to be aware of malignant disease and rarer conditions that can present to the emergency department and facilitate their diagnosis and subsequent management. This ensures more effective communication with specialists receiving referrals. In particular, the new diagnosis of cancer is increasingly being made in the emergency setting. Once the correct diagnosis is made, it is recognised that treatment protocols and referral pathways can vary widely and that local guidance is more appropriate. Diagnostic accuracy, however, remains a universal common concern. This book aims to provide the emergency practitioner with diagnostic aide-memoires and checklists as part of the front-line diagnostic armamentarium.
Development of Oral[]

Development of Oral Cancer

Oral cancer is a major health burden particularly in the developing world where most of the cases are diagnosed . More than 300,000 new patients are estimated to be diagnosed with oral and oropharyngeal cancer in 2012, and 50% of these cases will die annually . The WHO International Statistical Classifcation of Diseases (ICD-10) defned oral and oropharyngeal cancer as the malignancy emerging from the anatomic sites that correspond to the rubrics C00–C10 of the ICD-10 . Specifcally, the involved oral anatomic subsites include the lips, buccal mucosa, alveolar ridge and gingiva, retromolar trigone, anterior two-thirds of the tongue (anterior to the circumvallate papillae), floor of the mouth and hard palate. The oropharynx (middle part of the pharynx) consists of the soft palate, base (or posterior one-third) of the tongue, palatine tonsils, palatoglossal folds, valleculae and posterior pharyngeal wall. Traditionally oral cancer was sometimes used to designate head and neck cancer that genuinely covers wider anatomical region with more heterogeneous nature. Though, for the purpose of this chapter, lip/mouth and oropharyngeal cancers have been combined and termed as oral and oropharyngeal cancer (OPC). Also, the cases originated from either nasopharynx or other pharynxes were excluded to distinguish it from the head and neck cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of malignancy that is diagnosed in the oral and oropharyngeal region with more than 95%.
Essentials of[]

Essentials of Menopause Management

The hallmark of menopause is a permanent loss of ovarian function due to depletion of ovarian reserve, i.e., ovarian complement of oocyte-granulosa cells. Menopause is defned retrospectively as the cessation of spontaneous menstrual cycles for 12 months. The average age of natural menopause varies slightly across races and ethnicities; however, in Caucasian women, it has remained relatively fxed at 51 years . With advances in health care and reduction in maternal mortality in the Western world, women are expected to live long enough and spend roughly 40 % of their lives in a postmenopausal state. Accordingly, the burden of menopausal symptoms for individual women as well as the population cannot be trivialized .
Big Data[]

Big Data: The Management Revolution

There’s much wisdom in that saying, which has been attributed to both W. Edwards Deming and Peter Drucker, and it explains why the recent explosion of digital data is so important. Simply put, because of big data, managers can measure, and hence know, radically more about their businesses, and directly translate that knowledge into improved decision making and performance. Consider retailing. Booksellers in physical stores could always track which books sold and which did not. If they had a loyalty program, they could tie some of those purchases to individual customers. And that was about it. Once shopping moved online, though, the understanding of customers increased dramatically. Online retailers could track not only what customers bought, but also what else they looked at; how they navigated through the site; how much they were influenced by promotions, reviews, and page layouts; and similarities across individuals and groups. Before long, they developed algorithms to predict what books individual customers would like to read next—algorithms that performed better every time the customer responded to or ignored a recommendation. Traditional retailers simply couldn’t access this kind of information, let alone act on it in a timely manner. It’s no wonder that Amazon has put so many brick-and-mortar bookstores out of business.
Health Claims in Food Marketing Evidence on.[]

Health Claims in Food Marketing: Evidence on Knowledge and Behavior in the Cereal Market

This study examines the ready-to-eat cereal market during a period in which producers were initially prohibited from advertising cereals' health benefits but were later permitted to make health claims. Results indicate that producer health claims led to significant increases in consumer knowledge of the fiber-cancer relationship, in fiber cereal consumption and in product innovation. Government and general information sources had limited impact on fiber cereal choices in the years prior to the advertising, despite the accumulation of scientific evidence linking fiber to colon cancer. Most segments of the population increased their fiber cereal consumption once health claims were added to the market, but some informationally disadvantaged segments that had responded less to government and other sources of information responded disproportionately to health claims compared to other segments. These findings suggest that policies governing producers' use of health claims should be evaluated not only on how well they control deceptive or misleading claims, but also on how well they encourage producers to disseminate evolving health information to consumers.
A comparison of the performance of various project control methods.[]

A comparison of the performance of various project control methods using earned value management systems

Recent literature on project management has emphasised the effort which is spent by the management team during the project control process. Based on this effort, a functional distinction can be made between a top down and a bottom up project control approach. A top down control approach refers to the use of a project control system that generates project based performance metrics to give a general overview of the project performance. Actions are triggered based on these general performance metrics, which need further investigation to detect problems at the activity level. A bottom up project control system refers to a system in which detailed activity information needs to be available constantly during the project control process, which requires more effort. In this research, we propose two new project control approaches, which combines elements of both top down and bottom up control. To this end, we integrate the earned value management/earned schedule (EVM/ES) method with multiple control points inspired by critical chain/buffer management (CC/BM). We show how the EVM/ES control approach is complementary with the concept of buffers and how they can improve the project control process when cleverly combined. These combined top down approaches overcome some of the drawbacks of traditional EVM/ES mentioned in the literature, while minimally increasing the effort spent by the project manager. A large computational experiment is set up to test the approach against other control procedures within a broad range of simulated dynamic project progress situations.
Performance measures and metrics in logistics and.[]

Performance measures and metrics in logistics and supply chain management: a review of recent literature (1995–2004) for research and applications

Performance measures and metrics are essential for effectively managing logistics operations, particularly in a competitive global economy. The global economy is featured with global operations, outsourcing and supply chain and e-commerce .The real challenge for managers of this new enterprise environment is to develop suitable performance measures and metrics to make right decisions that would contribute to an improved organizational competitiveness. Now the question is whether traditional performance measures can be used and out of them which ones should be given priority for measuring the performance in a new enterprise environment. Some of the traditional measures and metrics may not be suitable for the new environment wherein many activities are not easily identifiable .Measuring intangibles and nonfinancial performance measures pose the greater challenge in the so-called knowledge economy. Nevertheless, measuring them is so critical for the successful operations of companies in this environment. Considering the importance of nonfinancial measures and intangibles, an attempt has been made in this paper to determine the key performance measures and metrics in supply chain and logistics operations. This is based on a literature survey and some of the reported case experiences. Suggestions for future research directions are also indicated.
Understanding Knowledge Management System antecedents of.[]

Understanding Knowledge Management System antecedents of performance impact: Extending the Task-technology Fit Model with intention to share knowledge construct

Little investigations have been made to examine the effect of employees' intention to share knowledge on Knowledge Management Systems’ (KMS) use, lack of contribution from users has been listed as a failure factor for KMS. Researchers generally assess KMS by frequency of use, disregarding system impact on employees' performance, despite its impact on the system's long-term success. This paper contributes to KMS research by extending Task Technology Fit (TTF), a model which is widely employed to study KMS, with the intention to share knowledge construct, in investigating the determinants of KMS performance impact. The paper starts with exploratory study, where interviews were conducted with a sample of KM users to explore possible constructs. In light of the interview results, a research hypothetical model was built integrating system and task characteristics constructs of TTF model. To validate the model, a survey was then conducted with 95 administration and technical staff of different managerial levels, for two different Knowledge Management Systems in two organizations. Intention to share knowledge, task characteristics, perceived Task Technology Fit, KMS characteristics, and utilization were found to have substantial influences on KMS performance impact. Among the key factors, intention to share knowledge was found to be especially important as it positively and significantly affects perceived Task Technology Fit, utilization, and KMS performance impact. The suggested integrated model helps for better understanding of KMS from the perspective of users’ motivation, system design, and tasks. This paper contributes-with academic and practical implications for KMS researchers, developers, and managers.