Showing 1489–1500 of 3005 results
Trajectory Tracking Control of Nonlinear Full Actuated Ship with Disturbances
Based on backsteppinرایگان!
Based on backstepping technique, this paper presents a design of any reference trajectory tracking controller for marine surface vessels under unknown timevariant environmental disturbances. The mathematical model of nonlinear surface ship movement includes Coriolis and centripetal matrix and nonlinear damp term. The observer is constructed for providing an estimation of unknown disturbances. It is proved that the designed ship trajectory tracking control law can make the resulting closed loop trajectory tracking system of ship be the globally uniformly ultimately bounded and achieve the object of trajectory tracking, while guarantee the global uniform boundedness of all signals of system. The simulation results on a model ship show that the control force and control torque are reasonable, and the transient state and steady-state performances are satisfactory. The effectiveness of the designed control law is verified.
Transcriptional Regulation of ROS Controls Transition from Proliferation to Differentiation in the Root
The balance betweenرایگان!
The balance between cellular proliferation and differentiation is a key aspect of development in multicellular organisms. Using high-resolution expression data from the Arabidopsis root, we identified a transcription factor, UPBEAT1 (UPB1), that regulates this balance. Genomewide expression profiling coupled with ChIP-chip analysis revealed that UPB1 directly regulates the expression of a set of peroxidases that modulate the balance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) between the zones of cell proliferation and the zone of cell elongation where differentiation begins. Disruption of UPB1 activity alters this ROS balance, leading to a delay in the onset of differentiation. Modulation of either ROS balance or peroxidase activity through chemical reagents affects the onset of differentiation in a manner consistent with the postulated UPB1 function. This pathway functions independently of auxin and cytokinin plant hormonal signaling. Comparison to ROS- regulated growth control in animals suggests that a similar mechanism is used in plants and animals.
Transcriptome-Based Examination of Putative Pollen Allergens of Rice (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica)
Pollen allergens areرایگان!
Pollen allergens are among the most abundantly transcribed and translated products in the life history of plants, and particularly grasses. To identify different pollen allergens in rice, putative allergens were identified in the rice genome and their expression characterized using the Affymetrix 57K rice GeneChip microarray. Among the most abundant pollen-specific candidate transcripts were Ory s 1 beta-expansin, Ory s 2, Ory s 7 EF hand, Ory s 11, Ory s 12 profilin A, Ory s 23, glycosyl hydrolase family 28 (polygalacturonase), and FAD binding proteins. Highly expressed pollen proteins are frequently present in multiple copy numbers, sometimes with mirror images located on nearby regions of the opposite DNA strand. Many of these are intronless and inserted as copies that retain nearly exact copies of their regulatory elements. Ory s 23 reflects low variability and high copy number, suggesting recent gene amplification. Some copies contain pseudogenes, which may reflect their origin through activity of retrotransposition; some putative allergenic sequences bear fusion products with repeat sequences of transposable elements (LTRs). The abundance of nearby repetitive sequences, activation of transposable elements, and high production of mRNA transcripts appear to coincide in pollen and may contribute to a syndrome in which highly transcribed proteins may be copied and inserted with streamlined features for translation, including grouping and removal of introns.
Transmission and Generation Expansion Planning Considering Loadability Limit Using Game Theory & ANN
Transmission and genرایگان!
Transmission and generation expansion planning (TEP and GEP) considering loadability limit of power system is studied in this paper. Artificial neural network (ANN) technique is used to evaluate loadability limit of the power system because of its sensitivity characteristic. Power system restructuring and separation of decision-making organizations of transmission and generation expansion, make coordination between generation and transmission companies more crucial. On the other hand, voltage stability is one of the indicators of power system security level. In this paper, first the load pattern of a six-bus power system is improved and then the best bus for load increment is determined using sensitivity characteristic of ANN. Afterwards the strategic interaction between transmission company (TransCo) and generation company (GenCo) for TEP and GEP in a competitive electricity market is proposed using Game Theory (GT). The proposed algorithm comprises three optimization levels to determine Nash equilibrium such that the most profitable strategy for both sides of the game can be found out in an expansion planning game.
Trauma in Otolaryngology
The word trauma is dرایگان!
The word trauma is derived from an alteration of “troma” for the Greek word “titroskein” (to wound) or “tetrainein” (to pierce) and is believed to have been frst used around the year 1693. As may be expected, accounts of trauma and its treatment date back to ancient times—almost as long ago as 10,000 BC—when human civilization developed and territorial wars were waged between persons and communities. Historical accounts have been found in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, Rome, China, India, Austria, and Germany and include descriptions of craniotomies and trephinations being done to evacuate hematomas. These offer interesting insights into the understanding of the human body and its ability to handle trauma. The Egyptian and Greco-Roman times witnessed large-scale battles and a gradual transition to the management of war wounds and war casualties. The Romans almost perfected this stratagem and established “valetudinaria” all across their lands in which the victims and survivors of wars could be attended to expeditiously and methodically. In ancient India under the rule of Ashoka, casualties of war were attended to expertly with the help of indigenously designed ambulances, skilled surgeons, and a support system provided by the womenfolk who cooked and cared for the wounded soldiers—probably the frst evidence of a nursing service!
Treatment of Inammatory Bowel Disease with Biologics
The pathological feaرایگان!
The pathological features of inﬂammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are characterized by an infltration of the lamina propria with lymphocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils . The cytokines released by these cells trigger a process of local cell death and matrix damage, leading to the endoscopic appearance of ulcers, friability, and exudates. The biologic agents approved, or in development, for IBD target specifc steps in this process. These mechanisms of action not only resolve local inﬂammation but also account for some of the adverse events associated with the use of biologics. In this chapter we will review the pharmacodynamics (physiological effects of drugs and their mechanisms of their actions) and the pharmacokinetics (the fate of a drug within the body) of currently approved biologics. Since the anti-TNFs were been the only biologic class for 15 years, most of the independent laboratory data has tested these agents, whereas published data on vedolizumab and ustekinumab is more limited.
Treatment of vitiligo with broadband ultraviolet B and vitamins
Background While oraرایگان!
Background While oral psoralen plus ultraviolet A (PUVA) remains the most popular therapeutic modality for vitiligo, recent reports have shown that narrowband ultraviolet B (UVB) also induces significant repigmentation. In this study we evaluated the efficacy of broadband UVB on actively spreading, progressive vitiligo in patients who had been followed for many months (12 or more) in our practice, who continued to depigment despite treatment.
Trustworthy Coordination of Pay Services
A milestone in e-payرایگان!
A milestone in e-payment through online is secured cloud environment. The trust of transaction lies in context in which it is started and completed. We have proposed a fault tolerant environment for e-payment at merchant node. A light weight Byzantine algorithm is implemented to make the process of transaction reliable. The user can search the bank details in a distributed environment in source ordering mode. A single user can access their bank accounts in different providers using a universal pay identity number. The proposed prototype is a composition of web services provided by different bank services. For secured communication the message are encrypted with the sophisticated RSA algorithm. For reliability we deployed Byzantine fault tolerance environment. The application may provide the commercial users an easy and secured mode of e-payment. It also reduces the overhead for infrastructure maintenance when deployed as Infrastructure as Service (IaaS) in cloud.