Showing 1–12 of 685 results
3D & three phase’s micromechanical constitutive model for the Uniaxial compression test of concrete
The mechanical behav...رایگان!
The mechanical behavior of concrete materials is strongly influenced by its microstructure. The macroscopic properties of concrete materials such as strength and stiffness are dependent on the properties micromechanics. The advance of composite mechanics and advanced computing technologies has made possible the micromechanical analysis of concrete materials.. In the first status of micromechanical modeling with special emphasis on the advantage and disadvantage of each model is presented. The current paper focuses on the geometrical description and numerical simulation of normalweight concrete at the mesoscale. In the first part the numerical representation of concrete at the mesoscale is introduced. The internal structure of concrete is considered at the micro level, and is treated as a three phase material comprised of aggregate particle, matrix, and the aggregatematrix interfaces The generation of the mesoscale geometry, the finite element discretisation and the applied material laws Whit micro plane theory are described. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the macroscopic behavior and Progressive failure of concrete materials under static loading, as influenced by the properties of its constituents at the meso level.
A beam–column joint element for analysis of reinforced concrete frame structures
Earthquake reconnaissance and laboratory tests reveal that the beam–column joints of existing RC frame structures in China are susceptible to failure, leading to severe structural damage. However, the inelastic response of joint elements is rarely considered in structural analysis or design. A new joint element considering shear deformation and bar-slip behaviour was proposed and verified using an extensive experimental data set. Two RC frame specimens with different details were modelled with the joint element and their simulated seismic responses were compared with experimental results in terms of global and local performance. Based on the simulation, the joint element proved to be reliable and suitable for 2D structural modelling. Finally, two reinforced concrete frame structures with the same dimensions and reinforcement ratios but different ductility are modelled with and without the proposed joint elements. The proposed joint element was shown to accurately predict the mechanical behaviour of such structures and their components, especially the hysteresis behaviour. Analysis shows that joint failure tends to happen in low- ductility structures and will reduce the ductility and the energy dissipation ability of the structure, even cause structural collapse. Compared with the new designed structures, seismic performance of the low-ductility ones is worse, with poor energy dissipation, weak collapse resistance and brittle failure modes
A comparison of sophisticated neural network and Finite Element Method in estimating of variations in permeability of earth-dam body in leakage phenomenon
Leakage is one of thرایگان!
Leakage is one of the most important problems in earth dam construction. Lake of leakage phenomenon analysis for earth dams can lead to destructive problems like increase in leakage forces, increase in pore water pressure and instability of the earth dam. In this study, leakage in two sections of an earth dam are modeled and analyzed by Finite Element Method (FEM), Multilayer Pereceptron network (MLP) and Radial Basis Function network (RBF) and the results are compared. Based on the results, it can be concluded that FEM prediction are not compatible with actual data, whereas sophisticated neural network give acceptable results.
A Guide to Their Specifications and Design
Our book is about thرایگان!
Our book is about the use of aluminum as a material of construction for structural components. Our major themes are: • The suitability of aluminum as a structural material, • How to design aluminum structural components in accordance with the Aluminum Association’s Specification for Aluminum Structures, • How to apply the design methods to actual structures. We begin by introducing you to aluminum, and we hope that by the end of Part I you are sufficiently well acquainted to be ready to get serious about the relationship. In Part II we explain the design requirements of the 2000 edition of the Specification for Aluminum Structures (hereafter called the Aluminum Specification), published by the Aluminum Association in its Aluminum Design Manual (4). Those of you who can’t wait to plug and chug may want to jump right ahead to Part III, and refer back to Part II only when you want to know ‘‘Where did that come from?’’ We assume that you have already had ample exposure to methods of load determination and structural analysis, so we do not replow that ground. We do, however, include in Part II a discussion on local buckling since this is a limit state (i.e., failure mode to you old-timers) that you may have been sheltered from if your design experience has been primarily with hot-rolled steel.
A Level Set Method for Structural Shape and Topology Optimization Using Radial Basis Functions
In this paper, the cرایگان!
In this paper, the conventional level set method is extended as an effective approach for shape and topology optimization by the introduction of the radial basis functions (RBFs). We apply the RBFs to represent the implicit level set modeling to reconstruct the shape and topology of an admissible design in a parametric way. This scheme converts the original PDE based level set method into a set of much easier ODE system and makes the level set method more efficient to implement. Numerical examples show the convergence speed and insensitivity to initial designs of proposed method in shape and topology optimization of 2D problems.
A model for concurrent maintenance of bridge elements
Maintenance activities on existing bridges are important for bridge safety and management. However, maintenance activities cause traffic jams and detours, and thus increase user costs. To reduce user costs resulting from maintenance activities while maintaining bridge elements in good condition, we introduce the concept of “concurrent element maintenance.” The concurrent maintenance concept attempts to integrate maintenance timings of different elements of a bridge to reduce user costs over the bridge’s life cycle. The proposed model adopts constraint programming as the search algorithm for optimizing the maintenance strategy of any bridge .An example using real data for a reinforced concrete highway bridge is presented. Sensitivity analysis of the discount rate investigates its influence on the life-cycle cost. The results demonstrate that the proposed model is effective for reducing the user costs as well as the total life-cycle costs.
A Neurofuzzy Decision Framework for the Management of Water Distribution Networks
Among the most imporرایگان!
Among the most important components of sustainable management strategies for water distribution networks is the ability to integrate risk analysis and asset management decision-support systems (DSS), as well as the ability to incorporate in the analysis financial and socio-political parameters that are associated with the networks in study. Presented herein is a neurofuzzy decision-support system for the performance of multi-factored risk-of-failure analysis and pipe asset management, as applied to urban water distribution networks. The study is based on two datasets (one from New York City and the other from the city of Limassol, Cyprus), analytical and numerical methods, and artificial intelligence techniques (artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic) that capture the underlying knowledge and transform the patterns of the network’s behaviour into a knowledge-repository and a DSS.
A new wavelet-based method for determination of mode shapes: Experimental Results
In this article a neرایگان!
In this article a new method is proposed to determine the mode shapes of linear dynamic systems from the results of wavelet analysis. A previously proposed method based on a modified Morlet wavelet function with an adjusting parameter is used to identify the natural frequencies and damping ratios of system. The mode shapes are obtained from the time signal of responses and the extracted natural frequencies from wavelet transform of response signals. The method is applied to a steel real beam excited by an impact force. It is shown that the extracted mode shapes are not scaled. Therefore, the mass change method is used for scaling of the mode shapes.
A Review on the Viable Technology for Construction Waste Recycling
Environmental problems have been considered as a serious situation in the construction. Waste management is pressing harder with the alarming signal warning the industry. Reuse, recycling and reduce the wastes consider as the only methods to recover those waste generated; however, the implementations still have much room for improvement. This paper reviews the technology on construction waste recycling and their viability. Ten material recycling practices are studied, including: i) asphalt; ii) brick; iii) concrete; iv) ferrous metal; v) glass; vi) masonry; vii) non-ferrous metal; viii) paper and cardboard; ix) plastic; and x) timber. The viable technology of the construction material recycling should be provided an easy reference for future applications. Keywords: Materials, recycling, asphalt, brick, concrete, ferrous metal, glass, masonry, non-ferrous metal, paper and cardboard, plastic, timber, construction.
A Robust Approach to Estimate the Uniaxial Compressive Strength of Intact Rocks
The uniaxial compres...رایگان!
The uniaxial compressive strength of intact rocks is extensively used in many rock engineering projects. High-quality core samples are required for the uniaxial compressive strength determinations. However, such core samples cannot always be obtained from weak rocks. For this reason, the predictive models are often employed to estimate indirectly. In present study, various models have been developed in order to predict uniaxial compressive strength. For this purpose different tests were accomplished. The root mean square error index was calculated as 6.1 from the neuro-fuzzy model and 13.63 from the multiple regression model. As a result, performance index reveled that the neuro-fuzzy exhibited a very high prediction capacity
A simplified Nonlinear Sway-Rocking model for evaluation of seismic response of structures on shallow foundations
This paper presentsرایگان!
This paper presents a simplified Nonlinear Sway-Rocking model as a preliminary design tool for seismic soil-structure interaction analysis. The proposed model is intended to capture the nonlinear loaddisplacement response of shallow foundations during strong earthquake events where foundation bearing capacity is fully mobilised. Emphasis is given to heavily-loaded structures resting on a saturated clay half-space. The variation of soil stiffness and strength with depth, referred to as soil non-homogeneity, is considered in the model. Although independent springs are utilised for each of the swaying and rocking motions, coupling between these motions is taken into account by expressing the loaddisplacement relations as functions of the factor of safety against vertical bearing capacity failure (FSv) and the moment-to-shear ratio (M/H). The simplified model has been calibrated and validated against results from a series of static push-over and dynamic analyses performed using a more rigorous finitedifference numerical model. Despite some limitations of the current implementation, the concept of this model gives engineers more degrees of freedom in defining their own model components, providing a good balance between simplicity, flexibility and accuracy.
A soft soil model that accounts for creep
The well-known logarرایگان!
The well-known logarithmic creep law for secondary compression is transformed into a differential form in order to include transient loading conditions. This 1-D creep model for oedometer-type strain conditions is then extended towards general 3-D states of stress and strain by incorporating concepts of Modified Cam- Clay and viscoplasticity. Considering lab test data it is shown that phenomena such as undrained creep, overconsolidation and aging are well captured by the model.