Showing 1–12 of 41 results
“Greening” the marketing mix: do firms do it and does it pay off?
Growing concern abouرایگان!
Growing concern about the sustainability of the natural environment is rapidly transforming the competitive landscape and forcing companies to explore the costs and benefits of “greening” their marketing mix. We develop and test a theoretical model that predicts (1) the role of green marketing programs in influencing firm performance, (2) the impact of slack resources and top management risk aversion on the deployment of such programs, and (3) the conditioning effects that underpin these relationships. Our analyses show that green marketing programs are being implemented by firms, and we find evidence of significant performance payoffs. Specifically the results indicate that green product and distribution programs positively affect firms’ productmarket performance, while green pricing and promotion practices are directly positively related to firms’ return on assets. In addition, industry-level environmental reputation moderates the links between green marketing program components and firms’ product-market and financial performance. Finally, we find that slack resources and top management risk aversion are independently conducive to the adoption of green marketing programs—but operate as substitutes for each other.
Agricultural risk management of a peri-urban water recycling scheme to meet mixed land-use needs
The use of recycledرایگان!
The use of recycled water as a valued resource is becoming well established worldwide as a means to support agricultural irrigation. This paper describes a case study of agricultural use of recycled water and associated mixed land-use needs in a peri-urban setting of northwest Sydney. The Hawkesbury campus of Western Sydney University has an established water recycling scheme to support both agricultural productivity and landscape amenity, along with increasing linkages to infrastructure protection from bush fire risk. Risk management strategies are described for a range of land use needs across the campus, and discussed in terms of supporting local resilience, activities of the range of communities of practice involved, and ecosystem services from the local peri-urban landscape. Conclusions are drawn in terms of risk management of agricultural water recycling as an integrative process for managing associated land use needs.
Agricultural sector and industrial agglomeration
In many developing cرایگان!
In many developing countries, agriculture hires at least as many workers as manufacturing industries. We investigate an economic geography model in which agricultural goods are costly to transport and in which manufactures hire labor from the local agricultural sector as unskilled labor. Our conclusions show that the parameters in the agricultural sector are crucial to determine the spatial configuration of economic activity. We provide an analytic treatment to the model. The location equilibria are compared with the first and second best outcomes.
Edges in Agricultural Landscapes: Species Interactions and Movement of Natural Enemies
Agricultural landscapes can be characterized as a mosaic of habitat patches interspersed with hostile matrix, or as a gradient of patches ranging from suitable to unsuitable for different species. Arthropods moving through these landscapes encounter a range of edges, with different permeability. Patches of native vegetation in these landscapes may support natural enemies of crop pests by providing alternate hosts for parasitic wasps and/or acting as a source for predatory insects. We test this by quantifying species interactions and measuring movement across different edge-types. A high diversity of parasitoid species used hosts in the native vegetation patches, however we recorded few instances of the same parasitoid species using hosts in both the native vegetation and the crop (canola). However, we did find overall greater densities of parasitoids moving from native vegetation into the crop. Of the parasitoid groups examined, parasitoids of aphids (Braconidae: Aphidiinae) frequently moved from native vegetation into canola. In contrast, parasitoids of caterpillars (Braconidae: Microgastrinae) moved commonly from cereal fields into canola. Late season samples showed both aphids and parasitoids moving frequently out of native vegetation, in contrast predators moved less commonly from native vegetation (across the whole season). The season-long net advantage or disadvantage of native vegetation for pest control services is therefore difficult to evaluate. It appears that the different edge-types alter movement patterns of natural enemies more so than herbivorous pest species, and this may impact pest control services.
Enriching vermicompost by nitrogen ®xing and phosphate solubilizing bacteria
The effect of inocuرایگان!
The effect of inoculation of vermicompost with nitrogen-®xing Azotobacter chroococcum strains, Azospirillum lipoferum and the phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas striata on N and P contents of the vermicompost was assessed. Inoculation of N2 ®xing bacteria into vermicompost increased contents of N and P. Enriching vermicompost with rock phosphate improved signi®cantly the available P when inoculated with P. striata. During the incubation period, the inoculated bacterial strains proliferated rapidly, ®xed N and solubilized added and native phosphate. Ó 2000 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.
Evaluating the influence of physical, economic and managerial factors on sheet erosion in rangelands of SW Spain by performing a sensitivity analysis on an integrated dynamic model
An integrated dynamiرایگان!
An integrated dynamic model was used to evaluate the influence of climatic, soil, pastoral, economic and managerial factors on sheet erosion in rangelands of SW Spain (dehesas). This was achieved by means of a variancebased sensitivity analysis. Topsoil erodibility, climate change and a combined factor related to soil water storage capacity and the pasture production function were the factors which influenced water erosion the most. Of them, climate change is the main source of uncertainty, though in this study it caused a reduction in the mean and the variance of long-term erosion rates. The economic and managerial factors showed scant influence on soil erosion, meaning that it is unlikely to find such influence in the study area for the time being. This is because the low profitability of the livestock business maintains stocking rates at low levels. However, the potential impact of livestock, through which economic and managerial factors affect soil erosion, proved to be greater in absolute value than the impact of climate change. Therefore, if changes in some economic or managerial factors led to higher stocking rates in the future, significant increases in erosion rates would be expected.
Evolution and mechanisms of plant tolerance to flooding stress
In recognition of tرایگان!
In recognition of the 200th anniversary of Charles Darwin’s birth, this short article on flooding stress acknowledges not only Darwin’s great contribution to the concept of evolution but also to the study of plant physiology. In modern biology, Darwin-inspired reductionist physiology continues to shed light on mechanisms that confer competitive advantage in many varied and challenging environments, including those where flooding is prevalent. † Scope Mild flooding is experienced by most land plants but as its severity increases, fewer species are able to grow and survive. At the extreme, a highly exclusive aquatic lifestyle appears to have evolved numerous times over the past 120 million years. Although only 1–2% of angiosperms are aquatics, some of their adaptive characteristics are also seen in those adopting an amphibious lifestyle where flooding is less frequent. Lowland rice, the staple cereal for much of tropical Asia falls into this category. But, even amongst dry-land dwellers, or certain of their sub-populations, modest tolerance to occasional flooding is to be found, for example in wheat. The collection of papers summarized in this article describes advances to the understanding of mechanisms that explain flooding tolerance in aquatic, amphibious and dry-land plants. Work to develop more tolerant crops or manage flood-prone environments more effectively is also included. The experimental approaches range from molecular analyses, through biochemistry and metabolomics to whole-plant physiology, plant breeding and ecology.
GMO standards, endogenous policy and the market for information
The paper develops aرایگان!
The paper develops a composite index of GMO standards restrictiveness for 60 countries, assigning objective scores to six different regulatory dimensions. Using this index and its components, we empirically investigate the political and economic determinants of GMO regulations for 55 countries, controlling for spatial autocorrelation. Results show that many of the determinants highlighted in the theoretical literature, such as the structure of the agricultural sector and the institutional environment are important determinants of the restrictiveness of the GMO regulation. As a key result there emerges a prominent role of the market for information, showing that the structure of domestic mass media (public vs. private) is an important driver of GMO standards.
Greenhouse gas emission accounting for EU member states from 1991 to 2012
Collectively, the EUرایگان!
Collectively, the EU is among the world’s largest greenhouse gas (GHG) emitters, though remarkable decreases in GHG emissions have been observed in recent years. In this work the GHG emissions for the 28 EU member states between 1991 and 2012 are accounted for and compared according to the inventory method of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The structure of GHG emissions at a national level, their distribution between countries, and trends across the period are then analyzed. National emission sources and sinks are decomposed for each country to elucidate the contribution of each sector (energy, industrial processes, solvents and other product use, agriculture, land use/landuse change and forestry, and waste) to the national totals. Germany was the largest emitter, with net emissions totaling 939 Tg CO2 equivalent in 2012, 60% more than the UK and 89% more than France, the second and third biggest emitters, respectively. The energy sector and agriculture were found to be the largest sources of emissions in most countries. Four quadrants were established to compare countries’ performance in emission intensity, carbon removal rate, and net reduction rate of GHG emissions. Slovenia, Portugal, Sweden, and Finland were located in Quadrant II as they displayed relatively low emission intensities and high carbon removal rates. Conversely, Hungary, Greece, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, and Poland were located in Quadrant IV because of their relatively high emission intensities and low carbon removal rates. Some suggestions for integrating the annual results and the trends both within and among countries into national and regional emissions reduction strategies are also included. The unified accounting framework and analysis of the structure of GHG emissions may also be useful for other countries and regions.
ological nitrogen fixation in trees in agro-ecosystems
The integration of tرایگان!
The integration of trees, especially nitrogen fixing trees (NFTs), into agroforestry and silvo-pastoral systems can make a major contribution to sustainable agriculture by restoring and maintaining soil fertility, and in combating erosion and desertification as well as providing fuelwood. The particular advantage of NFTs is their biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), their ability to establish in nitrogendeficient soils and the benefits of the nitrogen fixed (and extra organic matter) to succeeding or associated crops. The importance of NFTs leads to the question of how we can maximise or optimize their effects and how we can manage BNF and the transfer of nitrogen to associated or succeeding plantings. To be able to achieve these goals, suitable methods of measuring BNF in trees are necessary. The total nitrogen difference (TND) method is simple, but is better suited for low than high soil N conditions.
Optimizing chocolate production through traceability: A review of the influence of farming practices on cocoa bean quality
Due to recent develoرایگان!
Due to recent developments in traceability systems, it is now possible to exchange significant amounts of data through food supply chains. Farming practices applied by cocoa farmers at the beginning of the chocolate supply chain strongly influence several quality parameters of the finished chocolate. However, information regarding these practices does not normally reach the chocolate manufacturer. As a consequence, many specifications of the raw material cannot be taken into consideration in the operational decision making processes related to chocolate production. In recent years many studies have been investigating the influence of certain farming practices on cocoa beans and the subsequent chocolate quality parameters. However, no comprehensive analysis of the process variables in the chain and their effects on the quality can be found. In this paper we review and classify the available literature on the topic in terms of process variables throughout the chain, and their effects on quality and flavour aspects of cocoa beans and the eventual chocolate product. After analyzing the literature, we are able to identify potential benefits of using data regarding the farming practices into the chocolate production process. These potential benefits especially concern product quality and production yield, giving directions for the future of chocolate production.